Some professionals have erroneously designated visual-spatial intelligence as one of Gardner’s original seven multiple intelligences. These individuals are in fact referring to spatial intelligence. Gardner himself readily admits there is often a visual component to spatial intelligence. However, he differentiates between visual-spatial and spatial intelligence as he indicates other senses can be involved in spatial intelligence aside from sight. For instance, a blind individual, who has no access to the visual world, can develop spatial intelligence by utilizing the tactile modality of their perceptual system [3, 4]....
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Zimmerman, A.E., Dean, R.S. (2011). Visual-Spatial Intelligence. In: Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_3041
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
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