Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development

2011 Edition
| Editors: Sam Goldstein, Jack A. Naglieri

Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

  • Elizabeth LevinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_293

Synonyms

Definition

Parenting styles refer to the typical ways parents think, feel and behave in terms of child-rearing.

Description

The most widely known categories of parenting styles are based on the work of Diana Baumrind [1, 2]. Most of her research has focused on two dimensions of parenting style: authority and affection [1, 2]. Authority or demandingness refers to the degree to which parents try to control their children’s behavior by setting rational standards for behavior. Affection or responsiveness refers to the amount and way love is expressed to the child and acceptance of the child’s points of view. Based on these dimensions, Baumrind identified three categories of parenting styles [1].

The  Authoritative parentshows high levels of control, coupled with high levels of warmth. Authoritative parents exercise significant authority over their children’s behavior but at the same time they do this with warmth...

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References

  1. 1.
    Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1–103.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baumrind, D. (1989). Rearing competent children. In W. Damon (Ed.), Child development today and tomorrow (pp. 349–378). SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
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    Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. (2004). Exploring marriage-parenting typologies and their contextual antecedents and developmental sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 51–523.Google Scholar
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    Galambos, N., Barker, E., & Almeida, D. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 578–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Kuczynski, L., & Lollis, S. (2002). Four foundations for a dynamic model of parenting. In J. Gerris (Ed.), Dynamics of parenting. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
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    Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S., Darling, N., Mounts, S., & Dornbusch, S. (1994). Overtime changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful families. Child Development, 65, 754–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada