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Profound Mental Retardation

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Synonyms

Cognitive impairment; Developmental delay; Developmental disabilities; Intellectual disability; Mental deficiency

Definition

Profound Mental Retardation (MR) is defined by the presence of significantly sub average general intellectual functioning as well as significant limitations in adaptive functioning present prior to the age of 18 years. Individuals with a diagnosis of Severe MR generally obtain IQ scores below 20–25 [1, 3, 4].

Description

Profound MR is described by Diagnostic and statistical manual, 4th Ed.-text Revision (2000) as impairment comparable to a range of IQ scores that fall below 20–25 [2]. Individuals with Severe MR are severely limited in the areas of intellectual functioning and adaptive skills, typically exhibiting extensive deficits in sensorimotor skills during early childhood. They are also likely to experience severe deficits or lack of functioning in the areas of self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and...

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2262
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References

  1. American Association on Mental Retardation. (2004). Fact sheet: frequently asked about mental retardation. http://www.aamr.org/Policies/faq_mental_retardation.shtml

  2. American Psychological Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4-text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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  3. Goldstein, S., & Reynolds, C. R. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children. New York: The Guilford Press.

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  4. Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.). (2003). Child psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

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  5. McLaughlin, P. J., & Wehman, P. (Eds.). (1996). Mental retardation and developmental disabilities (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

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Correspondence to Lindsay J. Cummings .

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© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

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Cummings, L.J. (2011). Profound Mental Retardation. In: Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2262

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