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Arithmetic

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Synonyms

Basic number facts; Operations

Definition

Arithmetic is the understanding and use of the mathematic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Description

Arithmetic is a multi-component process that includes the abilities to complete addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations, to recall basic number facts, and to understand and apply the principles and the relationships of the operations to solve problems.

The acquisition of arithmetic skills is based upon the understanding of the number system. This includes the concepts of counting, cardinality, and adjusting sets to change number value. Children learn to combine sets to develop the understanding of addition. Reversing the process leads to the understanding of subtraction and the relationship between the operations. Also, children use counting strategies when learning to compute addition and subtraction problems. As children gain experience with adding and subtracting, the basic...

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_180
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References

  1. Butterworth, B. (2005). The development of arithmetical abilities. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(1), 3–18.

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  2. Delazer, M. (2003). Neuropsychological findings on conceptual knowledge of arithmetic. In A. Baroody & A. Dowker (Eds.), The development of arithmetic of concepts and skills constructing adaptive expertise (pp. 385–407). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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  3. Dowker, A. (2005). Individual differences in arithmetic implications for psychology, neuroscience, and education. New York: Psychology Press.

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  4. Gilmore, C., & Bryant, P. (2008). Can children construct inverse relations in arithmetic? Evidence for individual differences in the development of conceptual understanding and computational skills. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 301–316.

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© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

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Millians, M. (2011). Arithmetic. In: Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_180

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