Intelligence test performance data collected from a sample of individuals that is thought to be representative of the general population for which the test is intended.
Most modern tests of intelligence or cognitive ability are norm-referenced testing instruments. The norm samples for such tests are generally stratified, rather than random; in other words, they are selected to match the characteristics of the larger population with which the test will be used on variables of interest. For example, the developers of an intelligence test designed for nationwide use will likely attempt to recruit a norm sample in which the proportions of various demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability status, and educational attainment, among others) resemble those found in the general population, as indicated by census data. The test data gathered from the norm sample are subsequently used as...
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