Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler’s Diarrhea – What Do We Really Know?

  • Patricia L. Hibberd

Abstract

Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211–375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

Keywords

Prevention of infectious diarrhea in children Prevention of infectious diarrhea in daycare centers Prevention of traveler’s diarrhea Treatment of acute infectious diarrhea Treatment of rotavirus diarrhea Probiotic safety in prevention of infectious diarrhea Probiotic safety in treatment of infectious diarrhea 

List of Abbreviations

DAEC

diffuse adhering E. coli

E. coli

Escherichia coli

EAggEC

Enteroaggregative E. coli

EHEC

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

EIEC

Enteroinvasive E. coli

EPEC

Enteropathogenic E. coli

ETEC

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FOS

fructo-oligosaccharide

GOS

galacto-oligosaccharide

ICU

intensive care unit

IDSA

Infectious Diseases Society of America

Lactobacillus

LGG, Lactobacillus GG

ORS

Oral rehydration solution

STEC

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli

UNICEF

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia L. Hibberd
    • 1
  1. 1.Depts. of Public Health and Family MedicineTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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