Encyclopedia of Multimedia

2008 Edition
| Editors: Borko Furht

Image Watermarking

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-78414-4_83


Image watermarking deals with creating a metadata (a watermark) about the image content and hiding it within the image.

Challenges and Benchmarking

Digital images are often printed and scanned again, for example when they are used in magazines and readers want to store digitally. When used as web site illustrations, they are often compressed by lossy compression algorithms like JPEG. Common processing operations include softening, sharpening, denoising, scaling, cropping and color corrections. A number of benchmarking suits address image watermarking robustness evaluation, Stirmark [1], Checkmark and Certimark are well known examples.

The most challenging attacks on the robustness of image watermarks today are nonlinear transformations, rendering a watermark in an image undetectable for the watermarking algorithm. But even common image processing operations like scaling and rotation can be a serious challenge for the re-synchronization of an image watermark.


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  1. 1.
    F. Petitcolas and R. Anderson, “Evaluation of copyright marking systems,” Proceedings of IEEE Multimedia Systems, Multimedia Computing and Systems, Florence, Italy, Vol. 1, June 1999, pp. 574–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Liu, H. Sahbi, L. Croce Ferri, and M. Steinebach, “Image Authentication using automatic detected ROIs,” WIAMIS 2004, Fifth International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal, April 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Wu and B. Liu, “Digital watermarking using shuffling,” ICIP 99, Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 1, 1999, pp. 291–295.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag 2008