Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Face Recognition, Geometric vs. Appearance-Based

  • Lior Wolf
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_92



In 2D face recognition, images are often represented either by their geometric structure, or by encoding their intensity values. A geometric representation is obtained by transforming the image into geometric primitives such as points and curves. This is done, for example, by locating distinctive features such as eyes, mouth, nose, and chin, and measuring their relative position, width, and possibly other parameters. Appearance-based representation is based on recording various statistics of the pixels’ values within the face image. Examples include: recording the intensities of the image as 2D arrays called templates and computing histograms of edge detectors’ outputs.


Face identification systems are challenged by variations in head pose, camera viewpoint, image resolution, illumination, and facial expression, as well as by longer-term changes to the hair, skin, and head’s structure. The geometric approach,...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lior Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.The Blavatnik School of Computer ScienceTel-Aviv University Israel