Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Face Variation

  • Carlos D. Castillo
  • David W. Jacobs
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_91



Face variation refers to the way in which the appearance of the face changes due to changes in viewing conditions such as illumination or pose, or due to changes in properties of the face, such as its expression or age.


Face recognition is a fundamental problem in biometrics. One of the chief sources of difficulty in face recognition is the large number of variations that can affect the appearance of faces. These include changes in lighting, pose, facial expression, makeup, hair, glasses, facial hair, occlusion by objects that block part of the face from view, aging, and weight gain or loss. Many studies suggest that these variations can significantly reduce the performance of recognition algorithms.

Some face recognition systems aimed at cooperative subjects deal with this problem by attempting to control these sources of variation. This may be appropriate for some applications. In these cases, pose can be controlled by requiring a...

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The authors have been supported by a fellowship from Apptis, Inc., and by a Honda Research Initiation Grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos D. Castillo
    • 1
  • David W. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA