Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Image Formation

  • Xiaoming Peng
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_654



Image formation is the process in which three-dimensional (3D) scene points are projected into two-dimensional (2D) image plane locations, both geometrically and optically. It involves two parts. The first part is the geometry (derived from camera models assumed in the imaging process) that determines where in the image plane the projection of a scene point will be located. The other part of image formation, related with radiometry, measures the brightness of a point in the image plane as a function of illumination and surface properties.


Common visual images result from light intensity variations across a two-dimensional plane. However, light is not the only source used in imaging. To understand how vision might be modeled computationally and replicated on a computer, it is important to understand the image acquisition process. Also, understanding image formation is a prerequisite before one could solve some complex computer vision...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Webb, S.: The Physics of Medical Imaging. Taylor & Francis, London (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burns, B.L., Cordaro, J.T.: SAR image formation algorithm that compensates for the spatially variant effects of antenna motion. Proc. SPIE 2230, 14–24 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Foulkes, P.W.: Towards infrared image understanding. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University (1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murino, V., Trucco, A.: A confidence-based approach to enhancing underwater acoustic image formation. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8(2), 270–285 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Forsyth, D.A., Ponce, J.: Computer Vision: A modern Approach. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sonka, M., Hlavac, V., Boyle, R.: Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, 2nd edn. Brooks/Cole, California (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoming Peng

    There are no affiliations available