Image formation is the process in which three-dimensional (3D) scene points are projected into two-dimensional (2D) image plane locations, both geometrically and optically. It involves two parts. The first part is the geometry (derived from camera models assumed in the imaging process) that determines where in the image plane the projection of a scene point will be located. The other part of image formation, related with radiometry, measures the brightness of a point in the image plane as a function of illumination and surface properties.
Common visual images result from light intensity variations across a two-dimensional plane. However, light is not the only source used in imaging. To understand how vision might be modeled computationally and replicated on a computer, it is important to understand the image acquisition process. Also, understanding image formation is a prerequisite before one could solve some complex computer vision...
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