Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Fingerprint Matching, Manual

  • Herman Bergman
  • Arie Zeelenberg
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_55



Identification has been defined as the determination by a fingerprint examiner that two examined images of friction ridge skin are deposited by the same source (finger, palm or foot), with the goal of determining the identity of a donor. If this can be established it is generally accepted within the discipline that given the uniqueness or individuality of friction ridge skin, this fingerprint can be attributed to this donor at the same time excluding all others. (In this contribution an expert for practical reasons is referred to as “he”. Female experts should not feel excluded but may comfort themselves with the idea that with respect to erroneous identifications also the male form is used)

Fingerprint Matching: Manual

The matching process described here applies to marks or latent prints found at a crime scene or on pieces of evidence associated with a crime. Those marks tend to be incomplete and of lesser quality than  

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman Bergman
    • 1
  • Arie Zeelenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Certified Fingerprint ExpertSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Senior Advisor FingerprintsNational Police ForceThe Netherlands