Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Fingerprint Sample Synthesis

  • Raffaele Cappelli
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_3



Fingerprint sample synthesis is the generation of images similar to human fingerprints, through parametric models that simulate the main characteristics of such biometric data and their modes of variation. The image synthesis is typically performed by a computer program that, starting from some input parameters, executes a sequence of algorithmic steps that finally produce a synthetic fingerprint image.


With the increasingly adoption of fingerprint recognition systems, driven by their very appealing accuracy/cost tradeoff, methodical and accurate performance evaluations of fingerprint recognition algorithms are needed. Unfortunately, this requires large databases of fingerprints, due to the very small rates of error necessary for the procedure. For instance, according to [1], in order to support a claim of FMR less than 1/10,000 (the requirement for verification...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    UK Biometrics Working Group: Biometric Evaluation Methodology (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biometric Information Management and Security, American National Standards Institute, X9.84, 2001Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cappelli, R., Maio, D., Maltoni, D., Wayman, J.L., Jain, A.K.: Performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 3–18 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kücken, M.: Models for fingerprint pattern formation. Forensic Sci. Int. 171(2–3), 85–96 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherstinsky, A., Picard, R.W.: Restoration and enhancement of fingerprint images using M-lattice – a novel non-linear dynamical system. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Jerusalem, pp. 195–200 (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kücken, M., Newell, A.C.: A model for fingerprint formation. Europhys. Lett. 68(1), 141 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cummins, H.: Epidermal-ridge configurations in developmental defects, with particular reference to the ontogenetic factors which condition ridge direction. Am. J. Anat. 38, 89–151 (1926)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonnevie, K.: Studies on papillary patterns in human fingers. J. Genet. 15, 1–111 (1924)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kosz, D.: New numerical methods of fingerprint recognition based on mathematical description of arrangement of dermatoglyphics and creation of minutiae. In: Mintie, D. (ed.) Biometrics in Human Service User Group Newsletter, (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bicz, W.: “The idea of description (reconstruction) of fingerprints with mathematical algorithms and history of the development of this idea at Optel,” (Optel, 2003). http://www.optel.pl/article/english/idea.htm. Accessed 18 Dec 2007
  11. 11.
    Sherlock, B.G., Monro, D.M.: A model for interpreting fingerprint topology. Pattern Recognit. 26(7), 1047–1055 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cappelli, R., Erol, A., Maio, D., Maltoni, D.: Synthetic fingerprint-image generation. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 3, pp. 475–478. Barcelona (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cappelli, R., Maio, D., Maltoni, D.: “Synthetic fingerprint-database generation.” Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol.3, pp. 744–747. Québec City (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cappelli, R.: Synthetic fingerprint generation. In: Maltoni, D., Maio, D., Jain, A.K., Prabhakar, S. (eds.) Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. Springer, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cappelli, R., Maio, D., and Maltoni, D.: “Modelling plastic distortion in fingerprint images”. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (ICAPR2001), Rio de Janeiro, pp. 369–376 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raffaele Cappelli

    There are no affiliations available