Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Face Image Data Interchange Formats, Standardization

  • Patrick Grother
  • Elham Tabassi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_237



Openly documented data structures for universally interpretable interchange of facial imagery.

Biometric data interchange standards are needed to allow the recipient of a data record to successfully process data from an arbitrary producer. This defines biometric interoperability and the connotation of the phrase “successfully process” is that the sample, in this case, a facial image record, can be accurately identified or verified. This can be achieved only if the data record is both syntactically and semantically conformant to a documentary standard.


Facial image standards are perhaps the oldest documented biometric data standards. Predating even the fingerprint, the facial image has been mandated for identity documents since at least the World War I when several European governments saw the need for a facial photograph to serve as the core element in the cross-border identity verification application. Of course the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Kanade, T.: Picture processing system by computer complex and recognition of human faces. In: Doctoral dissertation, Kyoto University (1973). Available as TIFF images at http://xiotech.ulib.org/cgi-bin/ulib/display?11014.12072
  2. 2.
    Sirovich, L., Kirby, M.: Low dimensional procedure for the characterization of human faces. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(3), 519–524 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Australian Customs Service: Smartgate. Tech. rep.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Face recognition as a search tool “foto-fahndung”. Tech. rep.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frank, T.: Face recognition next in terror fight. USA Today (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    JTC 1, SC29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information: ISO/IEC 10918-1 Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Requirements and guidelines, 1 edn. (1994). URL http://webstore.ansi.org International Standard
  7. 7.
    JTC 1, SC29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information: ISO/IEC 15948 Computer graphics and image processing – Portable Network Graphics (PNG): Functional specification, 1 edn. (2004). URL http://webstore.ansi.org International Standard
  8. 8.
    JTC 1, SC29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information: ISO/IEC 15444-1 JPEG 2000 image coding system: Core coding system, international standard edn. (2004). URL http://webstore.ansi.org
  9. 9.
    ISO/IEC JTC 1, SC37 Biometrics: ISO/IEC 19794-5:2005 - Biometric data interchange formats - Face Image Data, 1 edn. (2005). URL http://webstore.ansi.org International Standard
  10. 10.
    Aamva national standard for the driver license/identification card (2000). AAMVA DL/ID-2000Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson, C., Grother, P., Chandramouli, R.: Nist special publication 800-76-1 - biometric data specification for personal identity verification. Tech. rep., National Institute of Standards and Technology (2007). URL http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html
  12. 12.
    INCITS M1, Biometrics: INCITS 385:2004 - Face Recognition Format for Data Interchange, 1 edn. (2004). URL http://webstore.ansi.org. American National Standard for Information Technology
  13. 13.
    Blanz, V., Vetter, T.: Face recognition based on fitting a 3d morphable model. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(9), 1063–1074 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiao, J., Baker, S., Matthews, I., Kanade, T.: Real-time combined 2d+3d active appearance models. In: Proc. International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), vol. 2, pp. 535–542 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Grother
    • 1
  • Elham Tabassi
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and Technology USA