Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Iris Digital Watermarking

  • Nick Bartlow
  • Nathan Kalka
  • Bojan Cukic
  • Arun Ross
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_170

Synonyms

Definition

Iris digital watermarking is a specific type of  digital watermarking that involves the imperceptible embedding of data (the watermark) in iris images (the host) in order to impart additional security to an iris biometric system. The watermark data can be strings of random digits; system specific identifiers, such as organization names and file creation dates; or biometric feature vectors. The additional security offered by the watermark may result from using it as a mechanism for proving the authenticity of the host image, tracking the chain of custody, or incorporating a multimodal biometric option. Iris digital watermarking or  biometric watermarking, in general, is typically used in tandem with  cryptography, and importantly, provides a layer of security that remains intact after the decryption process. A functional iris digital watermark should not degrade the performance of the host biometric system it protects.

Introduction...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Tirkel, A.Z., Rankin, G.A., van Schyndel, R.M., Ho, W.J., Mee, N.R.A., Osborne, C.F.: Electronic Watermark pp. 666–673 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Artz, D.: Digital steganography: hiding data within data. Internet Computing, IEEE 5(3), 75–80 (May/Jun 2001). DOI 10.1109/4236.935180Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zheng, D., Liu, Y., Zhao, J., El-Saddik, A.: A Survey of RST Invariant Image Watermarking Algorithms. ACM Comput. Surv. 39(2), (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahmad, S., Lu, Z.M.: A joint biometrics and watermarking based framework for fingerprinting, copyright protection, proof of ownership, and security applications. Computational Intelligence and Security Workshops, 2007. CISW 2007. International Conference on pp. 676–679 (15-19 Dec. 2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ratha, N.K., Connell, J.H., Bolle, R.M.: Secure data hiding in wavelet compressed fingerprint images. In: MULTIMEDIA ’00: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM workshops on Multimedia, pp. 127–130. ACM, New York, NY, USA (2000). DOI http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/357744.357902
  6. 6.
    Noore, A., Singh, R., Vatsa, M., Houck, M.M.: Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking. Forensic Science International 169, 188–194Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Low, C.Y., Teoh, A.B.J., Tee, C.: A preliminary study on biometric watermarking for offline handwritten signature. Telecommunications and Malaysia International Conference on Communications, 2007. ICT-MICC 2007. IEEE International Conference on pp. 691–696 (14-17 May 2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maiorana, E., Campisi, P., Neri, A.: Biometric signature authentication using radon transform-based watermarking techniques. Biometrics Symposium, 2007 pp. 1–6 (11-13 Sept. 2007). DOI 10.1109/BCC.2007.4430543Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartlow, N., Kalka, N., Cukic, B., Ross, A.: Protecting iris images through asymmetric digital watermarking. Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies, 2007 IEEE Workshop on pp. 192–197 (7-8 June 2007). DOI 10.1109/AUTOID.2007.380618Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kutter, M., Jordan, F., Bossen, F.: Digital signature of color images using amplitude modulation. In: Proc. SPIE EI, San Jose, CA, pp. 518–526 (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jain, A.K., Uludag, U., Hsu, R.L.: Hiding a face in a fingerprint image. In: ICPR ’02: Proceedings of the 16 th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR’02) Volume 3, p. 30756. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Musgrave, C.: Biometric watermarks. Patent 6,208,746, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, D.C. (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morikawa, G., Tokura, G.: Picture taking apparatus and method of controlling same. Patent 7,305,089, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, D.C. (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petitcolas, F.A., Anderson, R.J., Kuhn, M.G.: Attacks on copyright marking systems. In: Information Hiding, pp. 218–238 (1998). citeseer.ist.psu.edu/petitcolas98attacks.html
  15. 15.
    Pereira, S., Voloshynovskiy, S., Madueno, M., Marchand-Maillet, S., Pun, T.: Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation In: IHW ’01: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Information Hiding, pp. 340–353 Springer, London, UK (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Bartlow
    • 1
  • Nathan Kalka
    • 1
  • Bojan Cukic
    • 1
  • Arun Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.West Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA