Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Iris Template Extraction Via Bit Inconsistency and GRIT

  • Gerry Vernon Dozier
  • Marios Savvides
  • Kelvin Bryant
  • Taihei Munemoto
  • Karl RicanekJr.
  • Damon Woodard
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_165


Bit fragility; Bit inconsistency;  Fragile bits


The characteristic of iris code bits values being inconsistent (also referred to as fragile) across different images of the same iris was explored by Hollingsworth et al. [1]. The notion of fragile bits was first suggested by Bolle et al. [2] when it was observed that the empirical false reject rate (FRR) was significantly better than predicted by their theoretical model. This fact implied that the bits of an iris code are not equally susceptible to “flip”, given different environmental conditions that affect the quality of the captured iris images. Hollingsworth et al. demonstrated that by eliminating (masking) inconsistent bits, one could dramatically improve the FRR of an iris template.

Although the work of Hollingsworth et al. improves the FRR by identifying and removing fragile bits, our preliminary results show that it may be possible, based on bit instability, to further reduce the number of iris code bits...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerry Vernon Dozier
    • 1
  • Marios Savvides
    • 2
  • Kelvin Bryant
    • 1
  • Taihei Munemoto
    • 2
  • Karl RicanekJr.
    • 3
  • Damon Woodard
    • 4
  1. 1.North Carolina A&T State University  
  2. 2.Carnegie Mellon University  
  3. 3.University of North Carolina at Wilmington  
  4. 4.Clemson University