Encyclopedia of Biometrics

2009 Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil Jain

Face, Forensic Evidence of

  • Michael C. Bromby
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73003-5_101



Using the face as a biometric feature requires an image or representation of the face, which is then subjected to manual or computerized analysis. This relies on an examination of the individual features (such as the eyes, nose, ears etc) or of the image as a whole (areas of light and dark, texture, and color). Notably, face biometrics does not require active participation and can operate in a covert manner and may also be deployed from a distance. The major factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of face biometrics are illumination, pose, and expression.

Three main areas where the biometrics of the face is used are verification, identification, and reconstruction. First, the technique of comparing photographs of an offender with images of a suspect is occasionally termed  facial mapping. Exculpatory evidence can be obtained if marked differences are apparent from expert analysis...

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Bromby
    • 1
  1. 1.Glasgow Caledonian UniversityGlasgowUK