Microactuators are small-scale active devices capable of generating mechanical motion of solids or fluids. Motion is generated via converting one form of energy (for instance electrical) into kinetic energy. Typical sizes of microactuators vary from a few millimetres to a few micrometers, but total sizes can reach centimetres when packaged. When generating mechanical motion of solids, typical displacements are in the nanometer to millimeter range, and typical forces generated are in the nanoNewton to miliNewton range. For microfluidic actuators, typical flow rates generated are in the picoLiter/minute to microLiter/minute ranges.