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Synonyms

B-tree

Definition

The B+-tree is a disk-based, paginated, dynamically updateable, balanced, and tree-like index structure. It supports the exact match query as well as insertion/deletion operations in O(log p n) I/Os, where n is the number of records in the tree and p is the page capacity in number of records. It also supports the range searches in O(log p n + tp) I/Os, where t is the number of records in the query result.

Historical Background

The binary search tree is a well-known data structure. When the data volume is so large that the tree does not fit in main memory, a disk-based search tree is necessary. The most commonly used disk-based search trees are the B-tree and its variations. Originally invented by Bayer and McCreight [2], the B-tree may be regarded as an extension of the balanced binary tree, since a B-tree is always balanced (i.e., all leaf nodes are on the same level). Since each disk access retrieves or updates an entire block of information between...

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Recommended Reading

  1. Bayer R. The universal B-tree for multidimensional indexing: general concepts. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Worldwide Computing and Its Applications (WWCA), 1997, pp. 198–209.

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  2. Bayer R. and McCreight E.M. Organization and maintenance of large ordered indices. Acta Inf., 1, 1972.

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  3. Comer D. The ubiquitous B-tree. ACM Comput. Surv., 11(2), 1979.

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  4. Knuth D. The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3: Sorting and Searching. Addison Wesley, MA, USA, 1973.

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  5. Robinson J. The K-D-B tree: a search structure for large multidimensional dynamic indexes. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, 1981, pp. 10–18.

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  6. Srinivasan V. and Carey M.J. Performance of B+ tree concurrency algorithms. VLDB J., 2(4):361–406, 1993.

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  7. Theodoridis Y. The R-tree-portal. http://www.rtreeportal.org, 2003.

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© 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

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Zhang, D., Baclawski, K.P., J. Tsotras, V. (2009). B+-Tree. In: LIU, L., ÖZSU, M.T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Database Systems. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-39940-9_739

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