Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2009 Edition


  • Donghui Zhang
  • Kenneth Paul Baclawski
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-39940-9_739




The B+-tree is a disk-based, paginated, dynamically updateable, balanced, and tree-like index structure. It supports the exact match query as well as insertion/deletion operations in O(logpn) I/Os, where n is the number of records in the tree and p is the page capacity in number of records. It also supports the range searches in O(logpn + tp) I/Os, where t is the number of records in the query result.

Historical Background

The binary search tree is a well-known data structure. When the data volume is so large that the tree does not fit in main memory, a disk-based search tree is necessary. The most commonly used disk-based search trees are the B-tree and its variations. Originally invented by Bayer and McCreight [2], the B-tree may be regarded as an extension of the balanced binary tree, since a B-tree is always balanced (i.e., all leaf nodes are on the same level). Since each disk access retrieves or updates an entire block of information between memory...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Bayer R. The universal B-tree for multidimensional indexing: general concepts. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Worldwide Computing and Its Applications (WWCA), 1997, pp. 198–209.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bayer R. and McCreight E.M. Organization and maintenance of large ordered indices. Acta Inf., 1, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Comer D. The ubiquitous B-tree. ACM Comput. Surv., 11(2), 1979.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Knuth D. The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3: Sorting and Searching. Addison Wesley, MA, USA, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robinson J. The K-D-B tree: a search structure for large multidimensional dynamic indexes. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, 1981, pp. 10–18.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Srinivasan V. and Carey M.J. Performance of B+ tree concurrency algorithms. VLDB J., 2(4):361–406, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Theodoridis Y. The R-tree-portal. http://www.rtreeportal.org, 2003.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donghui Zhang
    • 1
  • Kenneth Paul Baclawski
    • 1
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 2
  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of California-RiversideRiversideUSA