Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2009 Edition
| Editors: LING LIU, M. TAMER ÖZSU

Bitmap-based Index Structures

  • Guadalupe Canahuate
  • Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-39940-9_1282

Synonyms

Definition

A bitmap-based index is a binary vector that represents an interesting property and indicates which objects in the dataset satisfy the given property. The vector has a 1 in position i if the i-th data object satisfies the property, and 0 otherwise. Queries are executed using fast bitwise logical operations supported by hardware over the binary vectors.t

Historical Background

Bitmap-based indexing was first implemented in Computer Corporation of America’s Model 204 in the mid-1980s by Dr. Patrick O’Neil. The bitmap index from Model 204 was a hybrid between verbatim (uncompressed) bitmaps and RID lists. Originally, a bitmap was created for each value in the attribute domain. The entire bitmap index is smaller than the original data as long as the number of distinct values is less than the number of bits used to represent the attribute in the original data. For example, if an integer attribute has cardinality 10 and integers are stored...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Antoshenkov, G. Byte-aligned bitmap compression. In Data Compression Conference, 1995. Oracle Corp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apaydin, T., Canahuate, G., Ferhatosmanoglu, H., and Tosun, A. Approximate encoding for direct access and query processing over compressed bitmaps. In Proc. 32nd Int. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Canahuate, G., Gibas, M., Ferhatosmanoglu, H. Update conscious bitmap indices. In Proc. 19th Int. Conf. on Scientific and Statistical Database Management, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan, C.Y. and Ioannidis, Y.E. Bitmap index design and evaluation. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chan, C.Y. and Ioannidis, Y.E. An efficient bitmap encoding scheme for selection queries. ACM SIGMOD Rec., 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, D., Krishnan, S., Chhugani, J., Kumar, S., and Venkatasubramanian, S. Compressing large boolean matrices using reordering techniques. In Proc. 30th Int. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koudas, N. Space efficient bitmap indexing. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Information and Knowledge Management, 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Neil, P. and Quass, D. Improved query performance with variant indexes. In Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pinar, A., Tao, T., and Ferhatosmanoglu, H. Compressing bitmap indices by data reorganization. In Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Data Engineering, 2005.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rotem, D., Stockinger, K., and Wu, K. Optimizing candidate check costs for bitmap indices. In Proc. Int. on Information and Knowledge Management, 2005.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rotem, D., Stockinger, K., and Wu, K. Minimizing I/O costs of multi-dimensional queries with bitmap indices. In Proc. 18th Int. Conf. on Scientific and Statistical Database Management, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sinha, R., Winslett, M. Multi-resolution bitmap indexes for scientific data. ACM Trans. Database Syst., 2007.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stockinger, K. Design and implementation of bitmap indices for scientific data. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Database Eng. and Applications, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stockinger, K., Wu, K., and Shoshani, A. Evaluation strategies for bitmap indices with binning. In Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Database and Expert Syst. Appl., 2004.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wong, H.K., Liu, H., Olken, F., Rotem, D., and Wong, L. Bit transposed files. In Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, 1985.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu, M-C. and Buchmann, A. Encoded bitmap indexing for data warehouses. In Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on Data Engineering, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu, K., Otoo, E.J., and Shoshani, A. On the performance of bitmap indices for high cardinality attributes. In Proc. 30th Int. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu, K., Otoo, E.J., and Shoshani, A. Optimizing bitmap indexes with efficient compression. ACM Trans Database Syst., 2006.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, K., Stockinger, K., Shoshani, A. Breaking the curse of cardinality on bitmap indexes. In Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Scientific and Statistical Database Management, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guadalupe Canahuate
    • 1
  • Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.The Ohio State UniversityColumbus, OHUSA