Skip to main content

Acoustic Tomography, Ocean

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:

Part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series book series (EESS)

Synonyms

Acoustic thermometry; Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC); Moving ship tomography; Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT); Reciprocal tomography

Definition

Ocean acoustic tomography is a remote sensing technique that employs the transmission of sound over large distances within the ocean to precisely estimate averages of temperature and current. Acoustic tomography data usually consist of time-of-flight travel times of acoustic pulses, which represent natural integrating measures of sound speed and current along acoustic paths. Variations in sound speed are predominantly caused by variations in temperature.

Introduction

Acoustic tomography is a technique for measuring large-scale ocean temperature and current using acoustic signals propagating over 100–1,000 km distances. The technique relies on the nature of the oceanic sound speed profile, which acts as an acoustic waveguide, and the transparency of the ocean to low-frequency sound. Sound speed is a function of...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-36699-9_211
  • Chapter length: 8 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   499.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-0-387-36699-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   499.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

Bibliography

  • Boyd, I. L., Frisk, G., et al., 2011. An international quiet ocean experiment. Oceanography, 24, 174–181, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.37.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cornuelle, B. D., and Worcester, P. F., 1996. Ocean acoustic tomography: integral data and ocean models. In Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. (ed.), Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling. New York: Elsevier, pp. 97–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dushaw, B. D., Egbert, G. D., Worcester, P. F., Cornuelle, B. D., Howe, B. M., and Metzger, K., 1997. A TOPEX/POSEIDON global tidal model (TPXO.2) and barotropic tidal currents determined from long-range acoustic transmissions. Progress in Oceanography, 40, 337–367.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dushaw, B. D., et al., 2001. Observing the ocean in the 2000s: a strategy for the role of acoustic tomography in ocean climate observation. In Koblinsky, C. J., and Smith, N. R. (eds.), Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century. Melbourne: GODAE Project Office and Bureau of Meteorology, pp. 391–418.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dushaw, B. D., Worcester, P. F., et al., 2009. A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C07021, doi:10.1029/2008JC005124.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dushaw, B. D., et al., 2010. A global ocean acoustic observing network. In Hall, J., Harrison, D. E., and Stammer, D. (eds.), Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. Venice: ESA Publication WPP-306, Vol. 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dushaw, B. D., Worcester, P. F., and Dzieciuch, M. A., 2011. On the predictability of mode-1 internal tides. Deep Sea Research, 58, 677–698, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.04.002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Howe, B. M., and Miller, J. H., 2004. Acoustic sensing for ocean research. Marine Technology Society Journal, 38, 144–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jensen, F. B., Kuperman, W. A., Porter, M. B., and Schmidt, H., 2011. Computational Ocean Acoustics, Second edn. New York: Springer, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-8678-8. ISBN 978-1-4419-8677-1.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaneko, A., Zheng, H., Nakano, I., Yuan, G., Fujimori, H., and Yoneyama, K., 1996. Long-term acoustic measurement of temperature variations in the Pacific North Equatorial Current. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 16,373–16,380, doi:10.1029/96JC01053.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebedev, K. V., Yaremchuk, M., Mitsudera, H., Nakano, I., and Yuan, G., 2003. Monitoring the Kuroshio Extension through dynamically constrained synthesis of the acoustic tomography, satellite altimeter and in situ data. Journal of Oceanography, 59, 751–763.

    Google Scholar 

  • Menemenlis, D., Webb, A. T., Wunsch, C., Send, U., and Hill, C., 1997. Basin-scale ocean circulation from combined altimetric, tomographic and model data. Nature, 385, 618–688.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mikhalevsky, P. N., and Gavrilov, A. N., 2001. Acoustic thermometry in the Arctic Ocean. Polar Research, 20, 185–192, doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.2001.tb00055.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Morawitz, W. M. L., Sutton, P. J., Cornuelle, B. D., and Worcester, P. F., 1996. Three-dimensional observations of a deep convective chimney in the Greenland Sea during winter 1988/1989. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26, 2316–2343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Munk, W., and Baggeroer, A., 1994. The Heard Island papers: a contribution to global acoustics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2327–2329, doi:10.1121/1.411316.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Munk, W., and Wunsch, C., 1982. Observing the ocean in the 1990s. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London A, 307, 439–464, doi:10.1098/rsta.1982.0120.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Munk, W., Worcester, P., and Wunsch, C., 1995. Ocean Acoustic Tomography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47095-1.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Research Council, 2000. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 160 pp, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id = 9756. ISBN ISBN-10: 0-309-06886-X.

  • Potter, J. R., 1994. ATOC: sound policy or enviro-vandalism? Aspects of a modern media-fueled policy issue. The Journal of Environment & Development, 3, 47–62, doi:10.1177/107049659400300205.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rémy, E., Gaillard, F., and Verron, J., 2002. Variational assimilation of ocean tomographic data: twin experiments in a quasi-geostrophic model. The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 128, 1739–1458, doi:10.1002/qj.200212858317.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Send, U., Worcester, P., Cornuelle, B. D., Tiemann, C. O., and Baschek, B., 2002. Integral measurements of mass transport and heat content in the strait of Gibraltar from acoustic transmission. Deep Sea Research Part II, 49, 4069–4095, doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00143-1.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Skarsoulis, E. K., Cornuelle, B. D., and Dzieciuch, M. A., 2009. Travel-time sensitivity kernels in long-range propagation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126, 2223–2233, doi:10.1121/1.3224835.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • The ATOC Consortium, 1998. Ocean climate change: comparison of acoustic tomography, satellite altimetry, and modeling. Science, 28, 1327–1332, doi:10.1126/science.281.5381.1327.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • von Storch, H., and Hasselmann, K., 2010. Seventy Years of Exploration in Oceanography: A Prolonged Weekend Discussion with Walter Munk. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12087-9. ISBN 978-3-642-12086-2.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Worcester, P. F., 2001. Tomography. In Steele, J., Thorpe, S., and Turekian, K. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 2969–2986.

    Google Scholar 

Links

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this entry

Cite this entry

Dushaw, B. (2014). Acoustic Tomography, Ocean. In: Njoku, E.G. (eds) Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-36699-9_211

Download citation

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.