Sea Ice Concentration and Extent
Frozen sea water; Ice floe; Ice pack
Sea ice. Sea ice is any form of ice which originated from the freezing of seawater and is found in the sea.
Sea ice concentration. Sea ice concentration is the fraction of an observational area covered completely by sea ice.
Sea ice extent. Sea ice extent represents the total area covered partially or totally by sea ice. For remote sensing applications, a lower threshold of 15 % in the fraction of sea ice cover is usually applied.
Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3–6 % of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 × 106 km2 to 16 × 106 km2, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 × 106 km2 to about 19 × 106 km2 (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2–3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and...
- Cho, K., Sasaki, N., Shimoda, H., Sakata, T., and Nishio, F., 1996. Evaluation and improvement of SSM/I sea ice concentration algorithms for the Sea of Okhotsk. Journal Remote Sensing of Japan, 16(2), 47–58.Google Scholar
- Comiso, J. C., 2010. Variability and trends of the global sea ice cover, Chapter 6. In Thomas, D., and Dieckmann, G. (eds.), Sea Ice – An Introduction to Its Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Geology. Oxford: Wiley/Blackwell, pp. 205–246.Google Scholar
- Comiso, J. C., and Nishio, F., 2008. Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C02S07, doi:10.1029/2007JC004257.Google Scholar
- Comiso, J. C., and Parkinson, C. L., 2008. Arctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E using two techniques, and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C02S05, doi:10.1029/2007JC004255.Google Scholar
- Gloersen, P., Campbell, W., Cavalieri, D., Comiso, J., Parkinson, C., and Zwally, H. J., 1992. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978–1987: satellite passive microwave observations and analysis. NASA Special Publication, 511, 290.Google Scholar
- Lubin, D., and Massom, R., 2006. Polar Remote Sensing. Berlin: Springer. Atmosphere and Oceans, Vol. 1.Google Scholar
- Martin, S., 2004. An Introduction to Ocean Remote Sensing. Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
- Massom, R., 1991. Satellite Remote Sensing of Polar Regions. London: Belhaven Press.Google Scholar
- Parkinson, C. L., and Comiso, J. C., 2008. Antarctic sea ice from AMSR-E from two algorithms and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C02S06, doi:10.1029/2007JC004253.Google Scholar
- Smith, Jr. W., and Comiso, J. C., 2008. The influence of sea ice primary production in the Southern Ocean: a satellite perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C05S93, doi:10.1029/2007JC004251.Google Scholar
- Steffen, K., Cavalieri, D. J., Comiso, J. C., St. Germain, K., Gloersen, P., Key, J., and Rubinstein, I., 1992. The estimation of geophysical parameters using Passive Microwave Algorithms, Chapter 10. In Carsey, F. (ed.), Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, pp. 201–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stroeve, J. C., Serreze, M.C., Fetterer, F., Arbetter, T, Meier, M, Maslanik, J., and Knowles, K., 2004. Tracking the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover: another extreme September minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021810.Google Scholar
- Svendsen, E., Kloster, K., Farelly, B., Johannessen, O. M., Johanessen, J. A., Campbell, W. J., Gloersen, P., Cavalieri, D., and Matzler, C., 1983. Norwegian remote sensing experiment: evaluation of the Nimbus 7 Scanning Microwave Radiometer for sea ice research. Journal of Geophysical Research, 88(C5), 2755–2769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turner, J., Comiso, J. C., Marshall, G. J., Connolley, W. M., Lachlan-Cope, T. A., Bracegirdle, T., Wang, Z., Meredith, M., and Maksym, T., 2009. Antarctic sea ice extent increases as a result of anthropogenic activity. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L08502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037524.Google Scholar
- Wadhams, P., 2002. Ice in the Ocean. London: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Zwally, H. J., Comiso, J. C., Parkinson, C. L., Campbell, W. J., Carsey, F. D., and Gloersen, P., 1983. Antarctic sea ice 1973–1976 from satellite passive microwave observations. NASA Special Publication, 459, 1983.Google Scholar