Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

2009 Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers (Editor-in-Chief)

Development, Evolution, and the Emergence of Novel Behavior

  • Amy K. Gardiner
  • David F. Bjorklund
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3_121

Definition of the Subject

Ontogeny, or individual development, results from the bidirectional interactions of genes and environment. It is this interaction that allows inherited traits to become expressed in the phenotypes ofadult organisms. While each individual will develop along its own unique trajectory, most members of a species are very much the same because theyall inherit a species‐typical genotype and a species‐typical environment. When this enviroment changes, individuals must adopt orthey will fail to survive. Individuals with enough plasticity to respond to new environments by developing novel phenotypes will be more likely to survivethan those without such resilience. In this way, developmental change can have substantial impact onevolution by providing the grist upon which natural selection acts. Successful developmental systemswill be selected and inherited, and evolution may thus be seen as a series of ontogenies.


There has been a resurgence of interest in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Agrawal AA, Laforsch C, Tollrian R (1999) Transgenerational induction of defences in animals and plants. Nature 401:60–63Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldwin JM (1902) Development and evolution. McMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barr CS, Newman TK, Shannon C, Parker C, Dvoskin RL, Becker ML et al (2004) Rearing condition and rh5‐HTTLPR interact to influence limbic‐hypothalmic‐pituitary‐adrenal axis response to stress in infant macaques. Biol Psychiatry 55:733–738Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belsky J, Steinberg L, Draper P (1991) Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Dev 62:647–670Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Belsky J, Bakermans‐Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH (2007) For better and worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 16:300–304Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bering JM, Bjorklund DF, Ragan P (2000) Deferred imitation of object‐related actions in human‐reared juvenile chimpanzees and orangutans. Dev Psychobiol 36:218–232Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bjorklund DF (2006) Mother knows best: Epigenetic inheritance, maternal effects, and the evolution of human intelligence. Dev Rev 26:213–242Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bjorklund DF, Bering JM, Ragan P (2000) A two‐year longitudinal study of deferred imitation of object manipulation in an enculturated juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Dev Psychobiol 37:229–237Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bjorklund DF, Ellis BJ, Rosenberg JS (2007) Evolved probabilisticcognitive mechanisms: An evolutionary approach to gene X environment Xdevelopment interachtions. Adv Child Dev Beh 35:1–36Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bjorklund DF, Grotuss J, Csinady A (2008) Maternal effects, social cognitive development, and the evolution of human intelligence. In: Maestripieri D, Mateo J (eds) Maternal effects in mammals. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bjorklund DF, Pellegrini AD (2002) The origins of human nature: Evolutionary developmental psychology. American Psychological Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bjorklund DF, Rosenberg JS (2005) The role of developmental plasticity in the evolution of human cognition. In: Ellis BJ, Bjorklund DF (eds) Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development (pp 45–75). Guilford,New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bjorklund DF, Yunger JL, Bering JM, Ragan P (2002) The generalization of deferred imitation in enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Anim Cogn 5:49–58Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyce WT, Ellis BJ (2005) Biological sensitivity to context: I An evolutionary‐developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Dev Psychopathol 17:271–301Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boyce WT, O'Neill‐Wagner P, Price CS, Haines M, Suomi SJ (1998) Crowding stress and violent injuries among behaviorally inhibited rhesus macaques. Health Psychol 17:285–289Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brakefield PM, Gates J, Keys D, Kesbeke F, Wijngaarden PJ, Montelro A, French V, Carroll SB (1996) Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns. Nature 384:236–242ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bull JJ (1980) Sex determination in reptiles. Q Rev Biol 55:3–21Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buttelman D, Carpenter M, Call J, Tomasello M (2007) Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Dev Sci 10:F31-F38Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Call J, Carpenter M (2002) Three sources of information in social learning. In: Dautenham K, Nehaniv C (eds) Imitation in Animals and Artifacts. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 211–228Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Call J, Carpenter M, Tomasello M (2005) Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Anim Cogn 8:151–163Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Call J, Tomasello M (1994) The production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans. J Comp Psychol 108:301–317Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Call J, Tomasello M (1996) The effects of humans on the cognitive development of apes. In: Russon AE, Bard KA, Parker ST (eds) Reaching into thought: The minds of the great apes. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 371–403Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carroll SB (2005) Endless forms most beautiful: The new science of Evo Devo. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carroll SB, Grenier J, Weatherbee S (2005) From DNA to diversity: Molecular genetics and the evolution of animal design, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Medford Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TW, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW et al (2002) Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–854ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Caspi A, Sudgen K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington H et al (2003) Influence of life stress on depression: moderation of a polymorphism in the 5‐HTT gene. Science 301:386–389ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caspi A, Williams B, Kim‐Cohen J, Craig IW, Milne BJ, Poulton R, Schalkwyk LC, Taylor A, Helen Werts H, Terrie E Moffitt TE (2007) Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci47:18860–18865Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Champagne FA, Curley JP (2008) The trans‐generational influence of maternal care on offspring gene expression and behavior in rodents. In: Maestripieri D, Mateo J (eds) Maternal effects in mammals. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Champoux M, Bennett A, Shannon C, Higley JD, Lesch KP, Suomi SJ (2002) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, differential early rearing, and behavior in rhesus monkey neonates. Mol Psychiatr 7:1058–1063Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Crews D (2003) Sex determination: where environment and genetics meet. Evol Dev 5:50–55Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dawkins R (1982) The extended phenotype: The long reach of the gene. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Beer G (1958) Embryos and ancestors (3rd Ed). Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Denenberg VH, Rosenberg KM (1967) Non‐genetic transmission of information. Nature 216:549–550ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dobzhansky T (1937) Genetics and the origins of species. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ellis BJ (2004) Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 130:920–958Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ellis BJ (2005) Determinants of pubertal timing: An evolutionary developmental approach. In: Ellis BJ, Bjorklund DF (eds) (2005) Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development. Guilford Press, New York, pp 164–188Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Flinn MV (2006) Evolution and ontogeny of stress response to social challenges in the human child. Dev Rev 26:138–174Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Francis DD, Diorio J, Liu D, Meaney MJ (1999) Nongenomic transmission across generations in maternal behavior and stress response in the rat. Science 286:1155–1158Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Garstang W (1922) The theory of recapitulation: A critical re‐statement of the biogenetic law. J Linn Soc Lond Zool 35:81–101Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Geary DC, Bjorklund DF (2000) Evolutionary developmental psychology. Child Dev 71:57–65Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gergely G, Bekkering H, Kiraly I (2002) Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature 415:755ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gilissen R, Bakermans‐Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH, van der Veer R (2008) Parent‐child relationship, temperament, and physiological reactions to fear‐inducing film clips: Further evidence for differential susceptibility. J Exp Child Psychol 99:182195Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe. Belknap Press of Harvard University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gottlieb G (1987) The developmental basis of evolutionary change. J Comp Psychol 101:262–271Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gottlieb G (1992) Individual development and evolution: The genesis of novel behavior. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gottlieb G (1998) Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: From central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis. Psychol Rev 105:792–802Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gottlieb G (2000) Environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 9:93–97Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gottlieb G (2002) Developmental‐behavioral initiation of evolutionary change. Psychol Rev 109:211–218Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gottlieb G (2007) Probabilistic epigenesis. Dev Sci 10:1–11MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottlieb G, Wahlsten D, Lickliter R (2006) The significance of biology for human development: A developmental psychobiological systems view. In: Damon W, Lerner RM (Gen Eds), Handbook of Child Psychology (6th edition), Lerner RM (Vol Ed), vol 1, Theoretical models of human development. Wiley, New York, pp 210–257Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gould SJ (1977) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Greene E (1996) Effect of light quality and larval diet on morph induction in the polymorphic caterpillar Nemoria arizonaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Biol J Linn Soc 58:277–285Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Haeffel GJ, Getchell M,. Koposov R a., Yrigollen CY, DeYoung CG, Klinteberg B, Oreland L, Ruchkin VV, Grigorenko EL (2008) Association between polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene and depression: evidence for a gene‐environment interaction in a sample of juvenile detainees. Psychol Sci 19:62–69Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical theory of social behavior. J Theor Biol 7:1–52Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harper L (2005) Epigenetic inheritance and the intergenerational transfer of experience. Psychol Bull 131:340–360Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hattori K (1998) Drivers of intelligence evolution in Homo: Sexual behavior, food acquisition and infant neoteny. Mank Q 39:127–146MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ho M-W (1998) Evolution. In: Greenberg G, Haraway MM (eds) Comparative psychology: A handbook. Garland, New York, pp 107–119Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ho M-W, Tucker C, Keeley D, Saunder PT (1983) Effects of successive generations of ether treatment on penetrance and expression of the bithorax phenocopy in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool 225:357–368Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horner V, Whiten A (2005) Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Anim Cogn 8:164–181Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Huether G (1998) Stress and the adaptive self‐organization of neural connectivity during early childhood. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:297–306Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jablonka E (2001) The systems of inheritance. In: Oyama S, Griffiths PE, Gray RD (eds) Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution (pp 99–116). MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jablonka E, Lamb M (1995) Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: The Lamarckian dimension. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Juffer F, IJzendoorn M (2005) Behavior problems and mental health referrals of international adoptees: A meta‐analysis. J Am Med Assoc, 293:2501–2515Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Laland KN, Odling‐Smee FJ, Feldman MW (1999) Evolutionary consequences of niche construction and their implications for ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:10242–10247Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Laland KN, Odling‐Smee FJ, Feldman MW (2000) Niche construction, biological evolution, and cultural change. Behav Brain Sci 23:131–175Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Laland KN, Odling‐Smee FJ, Feldman MW (2001) Cultural niche construction and human evolution. J Evol Biol 14:22–33Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Leavens DA, Russell JL, Hopkins WD (2005) Intentionality as measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Child Dev 76:291–306Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lewontin RC (1983) Gene, organism and environment. In: Bendall DS (ed) Evolution from molecules to men. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 273–286Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lickliter R (1990) Premature visual stimulation accelerates intersensory functioning in bobwhite quail neonates. Dev Psychobiol 23:15–27Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lickliter R, Hellewell TB (1992) Contextual determinates of auditory learning in bobwhite quail embryos and hatchlings. Dev Psychobiol 25:17–31Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lickliter R, Lewkowicz DJ (1995) Intersensory experience and early perceptual development: Attenuated prenatal sensory stimulation affects postnatal auditory and visual responsiveness in bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus). Dev Psychol 31:609–618Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lickliter R, Schneider SM The role of development in evolutionary change: A view from comparative psychology. Int J Comp Psychol, in pressGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lyons De, Young AG, Keil FC (2007) The hidden structure ofoverlimitation.Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:19751–19756ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maestripieri D (1998) Parenting styles of abusive mothers in group‐living rhesus macaque monkeys. Anim Behav 55:1–11Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maestripieri D (2005) Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:9726–9729ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Maestripieri D, Carroll KA (1998) Child abuse and neglect: usefulness of the animal data. Psychol Bull 3:211–223Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maestripieri D, Tomaszycki M, Carroll KA (1999) Consistency and change in behavior of rhesus macaque abusive mothers with successive infants. Dev Psychobiol 34:29–35Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mameli M (2004) Nongenetic selection and nongenetic inheritance. Br J Philos Sci 55:35–71Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mayr E (1942) Systematics and the origins of species from the viewpoint of a zoologist. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mayr E (1982) The growth of biological thought: Diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Belknap Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McGrew WC, Tutin CEG (1978) Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees? Man 13:243–251Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    McKinney ML (1998) Cognitive evolution by extending brain development: On recapitulation, progress, and other heresies. In: Langer J, Killen M (eds) Piaget, evolution, and development. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 9–31Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    McKinney ML (2000) Evolving behavioral complexity by extending development. In: Parker ST, Langer J, McKinney ML (eds) Biology, brains, and behavior: The evolution of human development. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp 25–40Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Meany MJ (2001) Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Ann Rev Neurosci 24:1161–1192Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Miles L (1990) The cognitive foundations for reference in signing orangutan. In: Parker ST, Gibson KR (eds). “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 511–539Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Miller DB (1998) Epigenesis. In: Breenberg G, Haraway MM (eds) Comparative psychology: A handbook. Garland, New York, pp 105–106Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moffitt TW, Caspi A, Rutter M (2006) Measured gene‐environment interactions in Psychology: Concepts, research strategies, and implications for research, intervention, and public understanding of genetics. Perspect Psychol Sci 1:5–27Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Montagu MFA (1962) Time, morphology, and neoteny in the evolution of man. In: Montagu MFA (ed) Culture and the evolution of man. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 324–342Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Montagu A (1989) Growing young, 2nd edn. Bergin and Garvey, GrandyGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nagell K, Olguin RS, Tomasello M (1993) Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol 107:174–186Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nelson CA, Zeanah CH, Fox NA, Marshall PJ, Smyke AT, Guthrie D (2007) Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science 319:1937–1940ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    O'Connor TG, Rutter M, Beckett C, Keaveny L, Kreppner JM, and the English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team (1999) The effects of global severe privation on cognitive competence: Extension and longitudinal follow-up. Child Dev 71:376–390Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Odling‐Smee FJ (1988) Niche constructing phenotypes. In: Plotkin HC (ed) The role of Behaviour in Evolution. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 73–132Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Odling‐Smee FJ, Laland KN, Feldman MW (2003) Niche construction: The neglected process in evolution. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Oyama S (2000a) The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution, 2nd edn. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Oyama S (2000b) Evolution's eye: A systems view of biology‐culture divide. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Oyama S, Griffiths PE, Gray RD (eds) (2001) Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Patterson F (1978) Linguistic capabilities of a lowland gorilla. In: Peng F (ed) Sign language and language acquisition in man and ape. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 161–201Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ploeger A, van der Maas HLJ, Rajimakers MEJ (2008) Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective. Psychol Inq 19:1–18Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Povinelli DJ, Nelson K, Boysen S (1992) Comprehension of role reversal in chimpanzees: Evidence of empathy? Anim Behav 43:633–640Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Povinelli DJ, Reaux DJ, Bierschwale DT, Allain AD, Simon BB (1997) Exploitation of pointing as a referential gesture in young children, but not adolescent chimpanzees. Cogn Dev 12:423–461Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Raff RA (1996) The shape of life: Genes, development, and the evolution of animal form. Chicago University press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ressler RH (1966) Inherited enviromental influences on the operantbehaviour of mice. J Comp Phys Psychol 61:264–267Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Savage‐Rumbaugh ES (1986) Ape language: From conditioned response to symbol. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Savage‐Rumbaugh ES, McDonald K, Sevcik RA, Hopkins WD, Rubert E (1986) Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). J Exp Psychol Gen 115:211–235Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schwartz JH (1999) Sudden origins: Fossils, genes, and the emergence of species. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shea BT (1989) Heterochrony in human evolution: The case for neoteny revisit(ed). Yearb Phys Anthr 32:69–101Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shea BT (2000) Current issues in the investigation of evolution by heterochrony, with emphasis on the debate over human neoteny. In: Parker ST, Langer J, McKinney ML (eds) Biology, brains, and behavior: The evolution of human development. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp 181–213Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Simpson GG (1944) Tempo and mode in evolution. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Skeels HM (1966) Adult status of children with contrasting early life experiences. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 31(3, Serial No. 105)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stright AD, Gallagher KC, Kelly K (2008) Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade. Child Dev 79:186–200Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Suomi S (1995) Influence of attachment theory on ethological studies of biobehavioral development in nonhuman primates. In: Goldberg S, Muir R, Kerr J (eds) Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Analytic Press, Hillsdale, pp 185–202Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Suomi SJ (1999) Attachment in rhesus monkeys. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR (eds) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Suomi SJ (2004) How gene‐environment interactions shape biobehavioral development: Lessons from studies with rhesus monkeys. Res Human Dev 1:205–222Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Suomi SJ, Harlow H (1972) Social rehabilitation of isolate‐reared monkeys. Dev Psychol 6:487–496Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tomasello M (1998) Emulation learning and cultural learning. Behav Brain Sci 21:703–704Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tomasello M (2000) Culture and cognitive development. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 9:37–40Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tomasello M, Carpenter M, Call J, Behne T, Moll H (2005) Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition. Behav Brain Sci 28:675–735Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tomasello M, Davis‐Dasilva M, Camak L, Bard K (1987) Observational learning of tool‐use by young chimpanzees. Hum Evol 2:175–183Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tomasello M, Kruger AC, Ratner HH (1993) Cultural learning. Behav Brain Sci 16:495–552Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tomasello M, Savage‐Rumbaugh S, Kruger AC (1993) Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Dev 64:1688–1705Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Waddington CH (1975) The evolution of an evolutionist. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Weismann A (1892) Das Keimplasma: Eine Theorie der Vererbung. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    West‐Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Whiten A (2007) Pan African culture: Memes and genes in wild chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:17559–17560ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Tutin CEG, Wrangham RW, Boesch C (1999) Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399:682–685ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Whiten A, Custance DM, Gomez JC, Teixidor P, Bard KA (1996) Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Comp Psychol 110:3–14Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Yunger JL, Bjorklund DF (2004) An assessment of generalization of imitation in two enculturated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol 118:242–246Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy K. Gardiner
    • 1
  • David F. Bjorklund
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA