Encyclopedia of Language and Education

2008 Edition
| Editors: Nancy H. Hornberger

Classroom Ecologies: a Case Study from a Gujarati Complementary School in England

  • Angela Creese
  • Peter Martin
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_236


The human and linguistic ecology of Britain has changed substantially over the centuries. Since World War II, particularly, there has been a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of groups of peoples which have settled in the country. These groups include displaced refugees who entered the country in the immediate aftermath of World War II, people from the Indian sub‐continent, East Africa and the Caribbean, and, most recently, other groups which have moved to Britain to escape from political upheavals, war or famine. These ‘new minorities’ in Britain brought with them their own languages which are often referred to as ‘community languages’, ‘heritage languages’ or ‘Languages other than English’. These languages have largely been left to fend for themselves, with little or no government support. Many of the groups have taken it upon themselves to provide some support for cultural and linguistic maintenance, and this has been done mainly through the setting up of...


Language Policy Community Language Ecological Framework Mainstream Schooling Language Choice 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Creese
    • 1
  • Peter Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.University of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.University of East LondonDagenhamUK