Encyclopedia of Language and Education

2008 Edition
| Editors: Nancy H. Hornberger

Ideology, Policy and Practice in Bilingual Classrooms: Brunei Darussalam

  • Mukul Saxena
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_235


English language and English medium classrooms in a non‐native context are intrinsically bi/multilingual and bi/multicultural as both learners and teachers bring their multiple identities and home–community sociolinguistic practices into the classroom. In countries where policy makers and other stakeholders have realised and accepted this fact, these identities and practices are exploited (or expected to be) as ‘resources’ (in the case of Britain, for example, see Martin‐Jones and Saxena, 2003); where this is not the case, they are positioned as ‘problems’. The latter is generally seen in post‐colonial multilingual countries (e.g., see Arthur, 2001; Canagarajah, 2001; Hornberger and Chick, 2001; Lin, 1996) where the interaction between oppositional values of local dominant ideologies on the one hand and ‘English‐only’ ideology on the other shape bilingual classroom ecologies. These ecologies are often reflected in language choices, rules for interaction and norms of...


Education Policy Minority Language Language Medium Malay Language English Medium Education 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukul Saxena
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of English Language & Applied LinguisticsUniversiti Brunei DarussalamGadong BEBrunei Darussalam (Southeast Asia)