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Protein Sulfation

  • S. Hemmerich
Reference work entry

Abstract:

Sulfation of glycoproteins, glycolipis, and proteoglycans is a post-translational modification fundamental to developmental biology, immunology, and neurobiology, as well as disease processes in cancer, inflammation and central nervous system disorders. The enzymes at the heart of biological sulfation are the Golgi compartment-associated sulfotransferases which decorate their substrates with specific sulfated epitopes (sulfotopes) that eventually become exposed to the extracellular environment and comprise novel binding sites for biological effector molecules facilitating cell-cell and cell-matrix communication. This review discusses a number of well defined sulfotopes with important biological roles, such as found on the ligands for the proinflammatory adhesion molecules L- and P-selectin, on pituitary gland hormones, on chemokine receptors involved in inflammation and virology, as well as on proteoglycans involved in hemostasis, growth factor mobilization and neural plasticity. Regulation of sulfotopes occurs often at the level of the underlying sulfotransferase(s), and in some cases also by specific endo-sulfatases. This review also classifies the human sulfotransferase complement and discusses the potential of sulfotransferase inhibition for novel therapies of important human diseases.

Keywords

Heparan Sulfate Chondroitin Sulfate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis Golgi Compartment Tyrosine Sulfation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

APS

adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate

CAM

chorioallantoic membrane

CIA

collagen-induced arthritis

CSPGs

chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

CST

cerebroside ST

EAE

experimental autoimmune encephalitis

FGFs

fibroblast growth factors

GAGs

Glucosaminoglycans

GlcNAc

N-acetylglucosamine

GalNAc4S

GalNAc-4-O-sulfate

GlcNAc6S

GlcNAc 6-O-sulfate

GST

Gal/GalNAc/GlcNAc-6-O-ST

HEV

high endothelial venule

HS

heparan sulfate

HSPGs

heparan sulfate proteoglycans

IdoA

Iduronate

LH

Lutropin

MS

multiple sclerosis

PAPS

3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

PNAd

peripheral vascular addressin

PSGL-1

P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

sLex

sialyl Lewis x

STs

Sulfotransferases

TSH

Thyrotropin

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

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  • S. Hemmerich

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