Skip to main content

Hakka Diaspora

  • Reference work entry
Encyclopedia of Diasporas

Location

The Hakka (Mandarin kejiat people”; alternative names: Hokka, Kejia, Kechia, Ke) are a diaspora ethnic group scattered throughout the world. They are considered by most scholars and Chinese people to be a subcategory of the dominant Han ethnic group of China. Because of multiple migrations and the scattered aspect of some historical migrations of the Hakka, it is difficult to determine who exactly is Hakka according to what can be considered objective criteria (Constable, 1996).

Originally thought to be from north central China, the Hakka are scattered in concentrated communities throughout China, especially in the southern part of the mainland. The exact origin of the Hakka is a particularly contentious issue among the different Hakka communities (especially among Taiwanese, Hong Kong, and mainland China Hakka groups). Self-identified Hakka communities in mainland China are largely concentrated in mountainous areas of northern Guangdong province, southwestern Fujian province,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 489.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Bracey, D. H. (1967). The effects of emigration on a Hakka village. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carstens, S. A. (1996). Form and content in Hakka Malaysian culture. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 124–148). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chan, W.-H. (1995). Ordination names in Hakka genealogies: A religious practice and its decline. In D. Faure and H. Siu (Eds.), Down to earth: The territorial bond in South China (pp. 65–82). Standford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Char, T.-Y. (1969). The Hakka Chinese: Their origins and folk songs. San Francisco: Jade Mountain Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, H., & Xu, D. (Eds.). (1987). Meixian prefecture [in Chinese]. Beijing: Zhongguo Guoji Guangfan Chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, Z. (1997). New theories of Hakka origins [in Chinese]. Nanning: Guangxi jiaoyu chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, M. (1968). The Hakka or “guest people”: Dialect as a sociocultural variable in southeastern China. Ethnohistory, 15(3), 237–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, M. (1976). House united, house divided: The Chinese family in Taiwan. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, P. (1997). History in three keys: The Boxers as event, experience, and myth. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Constable, N. (1994). Christian souls and Chinese spirits. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Constable, N. (1996). What does it mean to be Hakka. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 3–35). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Downs, W. J. (1962). A historical record of the Kaying diocese, 1845–1961. Unpublished manuscript. Maryknoll, NY: Maryknoll Archives.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erbaugh, M. S. (1992). The secret history of the Hakkas: The Chinese revolution as a Hakka enterprise. China Quarterly, 132, 937–968.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erbaugh, M. S. (1996). The Hakka paradox in the People’s Republic of China: Exile, eminence, and public silence. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 196–231). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fang, X. (1994). The mystery of the origin of the Hakka [in Chinese]. Guangzhou: Guangdong gaodeng jiaoyu chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faure, D. (1993). The structure of Chinese rural society: Lineage and village in the eastern New Territories, Hong Kong. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feuchtwang, S. (1978). School-temple and city god. In A. P. Wolf (Ed.), Studies in Chinese society (pp. 103–130). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freedman, M. (1974). On the sociological study of Chinese religion. In A. P. Wolf (Ed.), Religion and ritual in late imperial China (pp. 19–41), Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gladney, D. (1991). Muslim Chinese: Ethnic nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haas, P. (1992). Introduction: Epistemic communities and international policy coordination. International Organization, 46(1), 1–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Handler, R. (1988). Nationalism and the politics of culture in Quebec. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hsu, F. L. K. (1971). Under the ancestors’ shadow: Kinship, personality, and social mobility in China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang Shunqi, Huang Majin, and Zou Zipeng. (Eds.). (1993). Hakka traditions [in Chinese]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, E. (1976). Households and Lineages in a Chinese Urban Village. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Anthropology, Cornell University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, E. L. (1988). Grieving for the dead, grieving for the living: Funeral laments of Hakka women. In J. L. Watson, & E. S. Rawski (Eds.), Death ritual in late imperial and modem China (pp. 135–163). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, E. L. (1996). Hakka villagers in a Hong Kong city: The original people of Tsuen Wan. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 80–97). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jordan, D. K. (1972). Gods, ghosts, and ancestors: Folk religion in a Taiwanese village. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiang, C. (1991). The Hakka search for a homeland. Elgin, PA: Allegheny Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuhn, P. (1977). Origins of the taiping vision: cross-cultural dimensions of a chinese rebellion. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 19(3), 350–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lagerwey, J. 1996. Festivals and cults among the Hakka. China Perspectives, 4, 28–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lagerwey, J. (2000). The structure and dynamics of Chinese rural society. In C.-K. Hsu (Ed.), The proceedings of the International Conference on Hakkaology: History and Socioeconomy (pp. 1–43). Taipei: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leong, S.-T. (1997). Migration and ethnicity in Chinese history: Hakkas, Pengmin, and their neighbors. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levesque, L. (1969). Hakka beliefs and customs. Taichung: Kuang Chi Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li, Y. (1996). Gender and culture: New visions in research on Hakka women [in Chinese]. Guangzhou: Guangdong renmin chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin, Q. (1996). The traditional customs of Shangnan Village, Jiaoling County [in Chinese]. In X. Fang (Ed.), Temple Festivals and Lineages in Meizhou [in Chinese] (pp. 58–99). Meizhou: Guoji kejia xuehui, Haiwai huaren yanjiushe, Faguo yuandong xueyuan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, S. Q. (1995). Hakka ritual customs [in Chinese]. Fuzhou, Fujian: Fujian jiaoyu chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lozada, E. P., Jr. (1999). A Hakka community in cyberspace: Diasporic ethnicity and the internet. In S. Cheung (Ed.), On the south China track, (pp. 149–182). Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lozada, E. P., Jr. (2001). God aboveground: Catholic church, postsocialist state, and transnational processes in a Chinese village. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luo, X. (1992). A treatise on Hakka research [in Chinese]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi chubanshe. [Original work published 1933.]

    Google Scholar 

  • Lutz, J. G., & Lutz, R. R. (1998). Hakka Chinese confront Protestant Christianity, 1850. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, H. J. (1996). The Hakka ethnic movement in Taiwan, 1986–1991. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 176–195). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ong, A., & Nonini, D. (Eds.). (1997). The cultural politics of modern Chinese transnationalism. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oxfeld, E. (1993). Blood, sweat and mahjong: Family and enterprise in an overseas Chinese community. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oxfeld, E. (1996). Still “guest people”: The reproduction of Hakka identity in Calcutta, India. In N. Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and abroad (pp. 149–175). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Segawa, M. (1986). Hakka and Punti: An aspect of ethnicity in the new territories of Hong Kong [in Chinese]. Minzokugaku kenkyu, 51(2), 111–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, G. W. (1957). Chinese society in Thailand: An analytical history. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spence, J. D. (1996). God’s Chinese son: The Taiping heavenly kingdom of Hong Xiuquan. New York: Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, R. G. (1982). Reenacting the Heavenly Vision: The Role of Religion in the Taiping Rebellion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, G. (1991). China and the Chinese overseas. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watson, J. L. (1988). The structure of Chinese funerary rites: Elementary forms, ritual sequence, and the primacy of performance. In J. L. Watson, & E. S. Rawski (Eds.), Death ritual in late imperial and modern China (pp. 3–19). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watson, J. L. (1993). Rites or beliefs?: The construction of a unified culture in late imperial China. In L. Dittmer and S. S. Kim (Eds.), China’s quest for national identity (pp. 80–103). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiest, J.-P. (1988). Maryknoll in China. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu, Z. (1996). Stories from the Shiku river [in chinese]. Guangzhou: Guangdong luyou chubanshe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xue, F. (1997). Folk customs of Maoxing village, Xingning [in Chinese]. In X. Fang (Ed.), Village religion and culture in northeastern Guangdong [in chinese] (pp. 106–140). Meizhou: Guoji kejia xuehui, Haiwai huaren yanjiushe, Faguo yuandong xueyuan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yen, C.-H. (1995). Studies in modern overseas Chinese history. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, Q. Q. (1997). Gods and lineages in the Hutian Zhang Clan of Wuhua [in Chinese]. In X. Fang (Ed.), Village religion and culture in northeastern Guangdong [in Chinese] (pp. 1–76). Meizhou: Guoji kejia xuehui, Haiwai huaren yanjiushe, Faguo yuandong xueyuan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, Q. Z. (1995). An analysis of the abandonment of double burial reform [in Chinese]. Kejia yanjiu jikan, 1, 102–115.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

About this entry

Cite this entry

Lozada, E.P. (2005). Hakka Diaspora. In: Ember, M., Ember, C.R., Skoggard, I. (eds) Encyclopedia of Diasporas. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-29904-4_10

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-29904-4_10

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-0-306-48321-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-0-387-29904-4

  • eBook Packages: Humanities, Social Sciences and Law

Publish with us

Policies and ethics