Pharmacological Adjuncts

  • William J. Burns
  • Jose Rey
  • Kayreen A. Burns
Reference work entry


There is a broadly accepted list of basic competencies that are expected of a licensed clinical psychologist. In the case of a clinical psychologist with advanced training in Clinical Psychopharmacology (CPP), who is engaged in prescribing or consulting about medications, there is also a list of acceptable basic competencies. In order that psychologists may achieve basic competency in psychopharmacology, they need to begin with a solid core of academic learning and clinical practicum in psychopharmacology that will motivate them to continue to progress in competency as they engage in this specialized field of patient care. To progress from basic to expert competency, most clinicians trained in CPP will need years of experience. The route to expert competency is made more complex by the added burden of combining two disciplines effectively. Since there is no national board exam for diplomate status in CPP, the competencies of an expert need to be defined informally by colleagues in the field. There is no doubt that experts are appearing among the small group of men and women who were first to enter this career. The knowledge and experience that drive the transition from basic to expert competence reaches beyond an academic program. It must be nurtured by the experiences that these professionals encounter in their practice and especially by the input of other competent practioners who provide professional models for this new generation of prescribing and consulting psychopharmacologists.


Psychological Treatment Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Clinical Psychologist Clinical Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacological Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Diabetic Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endo-crinologists, North American Association for the Study of Obesity. (2004). Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27(2), 596–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2004). American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, I. M., Ferrier, I. N., Baldwin, R. C., Cowen P. J., Howard, L., Lewis, G., et al. (2008). Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2000 British Asso-ciation for Psychopharmacology guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22, 343–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H. (2008). The ascendancy of competencein professional psychology. The ABPP Specialist, 27, 8 & 24.Google Scholar
  6. Bateman, K., Hansen, L., Turkington, D., & Kingdon, D. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: Results from a randomized controlled trail. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37, 284–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger, W. E. (200). Allergies & asthma for dummies (p. 17). New York: Hungry Minds.Google Scholar
  8. Bricklin, P. M. & Ciuccio, J. (2003). Psychopharmacology examination for psychologists developed by the American Psychological Association Practice Orga-nization’s College of Professional Psychology. In Sammons, M. T., Levant, R. F., & Paige, R. U. (Eds.), Prescriptive authority for psychologists: A history and guide (pp. 179–189). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, L. S. (2003). Doubts about prescribing. In Sammons, M. T., Levant R. F., & Paige, R. U. (Eds.), Prescriptive authority for psychologists: A history and guide (pp. 47–58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, L. S. & Freyd, J. J. (2008). PTSD criterion A and betrayal trauma: A modest proposal for a new look at what constitutes danger to self. Trauma Psychology Newsletter, 3, 11–15.Google Scholar
  11. Bruns, D. (2007). Evidenced-based medicine, the bio-psychosocial model and prescription privileges for psychologists. ASAP Tablet, 8, 1 & 6.Google Scholar
  12. Burns, W. J., Rey, J., & Burns, K. (2007). Psychopharmaco-logy as practiced by psychologists. In Hersen, M. & Gross, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of clinical psychology volume 1: Adults. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, M. J., Wells, A., & Todd, G. (2004). A cognitive model of bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conti, B., Majer, R., Barr, A. M., Morale, M. C., Lu, X., Sanna, P. P., et al. (2007). Region-specific transcriptional changes following the three antidepressant treatments electro convulsive therapy, sleep deprivation and fluoxetine. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 167–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunivin, D. L. (2003). Experiences of a department of defense prescribing psychologist: A personal ac-count. In Sammons, M. T., Levant, R. F., & Paige, R. U. (Eds.), Prescriptive authority for psychologists: A history and guide (pp. 103–115). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  16. Etkin, A., Pittenger, C., Polan, H. J., & Kandel, E. (2005). Toward a neurobiology of psychotherapy: Basic sci-ence and clinical applications. The Journal of Neuro-psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 145–159.Google Scholar
  17. Forman, E. M., Herbert, J. D., Moitra, E., Yeomans, P. D., & Geller, P. A. (2007). A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. Behavior Modification, 31, 772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Groopman, J. (2007). How doctors think (p. 24). New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  19. Härter, M., Baumeister, H., Reuter, K., Jacobi, F., Höfler, M., Bengel, J., & Wittchen, J. (2007). Increased 12-month prevalence rates of mental disorders in patients with chronic somatic diseases. Psychotherapy and Psycho-somatics, 76, 354–360.Google Scholar
  20. Hersen, M. & Ammerman, R. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of prescrip tive treatments for adults. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  21. Hoffman, S. G. (2006). Social self-appraisal therapy for social phobia: Preliminary findings. Journal of Cog-nitive Psychotherapy, 20, 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoffman, S. G., Meuret, A. E., Smits, J. A. J., Simon, N. M., Pollack, M. H., Eisenmenger, K., et al. (2006). Aug-mentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psy-chiatry, 63, 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hogarty, G. E., Greenwald, D. P., & Eack, S. M. (2006). Special section: A memorial tribute: Durability and mechanism of effects of cognitive enhancement therapy. Psychiatric Services, 57, 1751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Treatment outcomes, common factors, and continued neglect of mechanisms of change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12, 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Evidence-based treatment and practice. American Psychologist, 63, 146–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. LeVine, E. & Mantell, E. (2007). The integration of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy in PTSD treatment: A biopsychosocial model of care. In Carll, E. (Ed.), Trauma psychology: Issues in violence, disaster, health and illness (Vol. 1, pp.). Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  27. Lundgren, T., Dahl, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2008). Evaluation of medications of change in the treatment of epilepsy with acceptance and commitment therapy. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore, B. (2008). Prescribing psychologists in Iraq: An opportunity for a more comprehensive level of care. ASAP Tablet, 9, 4 & 9.Google Scholar
  29. Moras, K. (2006). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Building and rebuilding the human brain. Psycho-therapy Research, 16, 515–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nathan, P. E. & Gorman, J. M. (Eds.). (1998). A guide to treatments that work. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. O’Connor, K. P., Aardema, F., Bouthillier, D., Fournier, S., Guay, S., Robillard, S., et al. (2005). Evaluation of an inference-based approach to treating obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 34, 148–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Otto, M. W., Smits, J. A., & Reese, H. E. (2005). Combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of mood and anxiety disorders in adults: Review and analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12, 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pineles, S. L., Street, A. E., & Koenen, K. C. (2006). The differential relationships of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness to psychological and somatization symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(6), 688–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rapee, R. M. & Barlow, D. H. (2001). Generalized anxi-ety disorders, panic disorders, and phobias. In Sutker, P. B. & Adams, H. E. (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 131–154). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  35. Ressler, K. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Tannenbaum, L., Andersen, P., Graap, K., Zilmand, E., et al. (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1136–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rey, J. A. (2006a). The interface of multiculturalism and psychopharmacology. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 19(6), 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rey, J. A. (2006b). Psychopharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus: Clinical considerations and options. In Llorente, M. & Malphurs, J. (Eds.), Psychiatric disorders and diabetes mellitus (pp. 153–178). London: Informa Healthcare.Google Scholar
  38. Rey, J. A. & Rivas-Vazquez, R. A. (2002). Weight gain and metabolic disturbances associated with the atypical antipsychotics. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(3), 341–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rothbaum, B. O. (2008). Critical parameters for d-cyclos-erine enhancement of cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 293–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rozensky, R. H. (2007). Expanding psychologists’ clinical roles. The Register Report, 33, 30–31.Google Scholar
  41. Sammons, M. T. & Schmidt, N. B. (Eds.). (2001). Combined treatments for mental disorders: A guide to psycholo-gical and pharmacological interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  42. Schienle, A., Schafer, A., Hermann, A., Rohrmann, S., & Vaitl, D. (2007). Symptom provocation and reduction in patients suffering from spider phobia: An fMRI study on exposure therapy. European Archives of Psy-chiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257, 486–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmidt, N. B. & Lerew, D. R. (1998). Prospective evaluation of psychological risk factors as predictors of functional impairment during acute stress. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 8, 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmidt, U. & Treasure, J. (2006). Anorexia nervosa: Valued and visible. A cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and its implications for research and practice. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 343–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schwartz, D. (2008). In his father’s footsteps. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 102.Google Scholar
  46. Stuart, R. B. & Lillienfeld, S. O. (2007). The evidence missing from evidence-based practice. American Psy-chologist, 62, 615–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Victor, M. & Ropper, A. H. (2001). Adams and Victor’s prinicipoles of neurology (7th ed., p. 1611). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Voncken, M. J., & Bogels S. M. (2006). Changing inter-pretation and judgmental bias in social phobia: A pilot study of a short, highly structured cognitive treatment. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wilhelm, S., Buhlman, U., Tolin, D., Meunier, S. A., Pearlson, G. D., Reese, H. E., et al. (2008). Aug-mentation of behavior therapy with D-cycloserine for obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Younger, R. D. (2007). From the front lines of psychologists prescribing: A MASH case. ASAP Tablet, 8, 4.Google Scholar
  51. Yucha, C. & Montgomery, D. (2008). Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.Google Scholar
  52. Zayfert, C. (2008). Culturally competent treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical practice: An ideographic, transcultural approach. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15, 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Burns
    • 1
  • Jose Rey
    • 1
  • Kayreen A. Burns
    • 2
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Barry UniversityMiami ShoresUSA

Personalised recommendations