Advertisement

Teaching

  • Bethany C. Johnson
  • David DiLillo
  • Calvin P. Garbin
Reference work entry

Abstract:

Teaching is an important component of most academic clinicians’ responsibilities, but it often receives the least attention during graduate training. This chapter describes basic and expert competencies underlying teaching at the both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The underlying premise of the chapter is that teaching competence is comprised of fundamental and advanced skills that can be learned, practiced, and mastered. The majority of the work that goes into teaching happens outside of the classroom, and starts with careful course planning. The skills and behaviors necessary for competent teaching—from classroom management to lesson planning and assessment—should be based on explicit educational objectives and goals. Expert teachers not only integrate pedagogy and content knowledge to implement strategies that are more sophisticated than those used by teachers with basic competence, they also incorporate more complex innovations and interventions into their teaching. Instructors at all levels of competence should include systematic reflection and assessment of the efficacy of their teaching in their normal repertoire of skills. As they gain experience and skill, teachers can take a more experimental approach to improving their instructional approach. By applying a scholarly approach to teaching, academic clinicians can more efficiently improve the quality of instruction based on the empirical evidence of learning outcomes. This chapter can be used as a reference for new teachers just beginning their careers, or by experienced teachers looking to improve their methods.

Keywords

Student Evaluation Procedural Knowledge Good Teacher Metacognitive Knowledge Novice Teacher 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (1993). Learner-centered psychological principles: Guidelines for school reform and restructuring. Washington, DC: Author and Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  3. Appleby, D. C. (1999). How to improve your teaching with the course syllabus. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 19–24). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  4. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, T. A., Cohen, A. L., & Buskist, W. (2005). Rapport: Its relation to student attitudes and behaviors toward teachers and classes. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 237–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein, D. A. (1999). Tell and show: The merits of classroom demonstrations. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 105–108). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  7. Bernstein, D., Burnett, A., Goodburn, A., & Savory, P. (2006). Making teaching and learning visible: Course portfolios and the peer review of teaching. Bolton, MA: Jossey-Bass Anker Series.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.Google Scholar
  9. Boice, R. (1992). The new faculty member: Supporting and fostering professional development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Boyd, D. R. (2008). Teaching students with disabilities: A proactive approach. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 99–108). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  11. Brink, T. L. (2004). Online teaching: Problems and solutions. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 193–200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  12. Burke, B. L. (2008). For the grader good: Considering what you grade and why. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 121–130). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  13. Buskist, W., Keeley, J., & Irons, J. (2008). Evaluating and improving your teaching. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 163–172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  14. Buskist, W., Sikorski, J., Buckley, T., & Saville, B. K. (2002). Elements of master teaching. In Davis, S. F., & Buskist, W. (Eds.), The teaching of psychology: Essays in honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer (pp. 27–39). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Duffy, T. M., & Kirkley, J. R. (2004). Learner-centered theory and practice in distance education: Cases from higher education. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Fletcher, J. J., & Patrick, S. K. (1999). Teaching and learning. In Bianco-Mathis, V., & Chalofsky, N. (Eds.), The full-time faculty handbook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Gibson, G. W. (1992). Good start: A guidebook for new faculty in liberal arts colleges. Bolton, MA: Anker.Google Scholar
  18. Henslee, A. M., Burgess, D. R., & Buskist, W. (2006). Student preferences for first day of class activities. Teaching of Psychology, 3, 189–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hilton, J. L. (1999). Teaching large classes. In Perlman, B., McCann, & L. I., McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 115–120). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  20. Jenkins, J. J. (1991). Teaching psychology in large classes: Research and personal experience. Teaching of Psychology, 18, 74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Smith, K. (1991). Cooperative learning: Increasing college faculty instructional productivity. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.Google Scholar
  22. Keeley, J., Smith, D., & Buskist, W. (2006). The teacher behaviors checklist: Factor analysis of its utility for evaluating teaching. Teaching of Psychology, 33, 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keith-Spiegel, P. (1999). Ethically risky situations between students and professors outside the classroom. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 225–230). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  24. King, R. M. (2004). Managing teaching loads and finding time for reflections and renewal. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 3–10). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  25. Komarrajou, M. (2008). A social cognitive approach to training teaching assistants. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kramer, T. J., & Horn, J. H. (1996). Class discussion: Promoting participation and preventing problems. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 99–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  27. Leonard, D. C. (2002). Learning theories A to Z. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  28. LoSchiavo, F. M., Shatz, M. A., & Poling, D. A. (2008). Strengthening the scholarship of teaching and learning via experimentation. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lucas, C. J., & Murray, J. W. (2002). New faculty: A practical guide for academic beginners. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  30. Machmer, P. L., & Crawford, P. (2007). Student perception of active learning in a large cross-disciplinary classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education, 8, 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marsh, P. A., & Poepsel, D. L. (2008). Perceived usefulness of learning outcomes predicts ratings of departmental helpfulness. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  33. McGovern, T. V., & Miller, S. L. (2008). Integrating teacher behaviors with character strengths and virtues for faculty development. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 278–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McKeachie, W. J. (2002). Teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (11th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  35. Messino, M., Gaither, G., Bott, J., & Ritchey, K. (2007). Inexperienced versus experienced students’ expectations for active learning in large classes. College Teaching, 55, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miserandino, M. (1999). Those who can do: Implementing active learning. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 109–114). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  37. Novak, G., Gavrin, A., Christian, W., & Patterson, E. (1999). Just-in-time teaching: Blending active learning with web technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  38. Perlman, B., & McCann, L. I. (2004). The first day of class. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 61–70). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  39. Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & Kadah-Ammeter, T. L. (2008). Working with students in need: An ethical perspective. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 325–336). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  40. Poe, R. E. (2004a). Hitting a nerve: When touchy subjects come up in class. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practi-cal advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 193–200). Washington, DC: American Psycho-logical Society.Google Scholar
  41. Poe, R. E. (2004b). Course interrupted: Coping with instructor absence. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 91–102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  42. Sargent Mester, C. (2008). The professor’s voice: A resource and a risk. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 23–30). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  43. Savory, P., Burnett, A., & Goodburn, A. (2007). Inquiry into the college classroom: A journey toward scholarly teaching. Bolton, MA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, R. A. (2008). Moving toward the scholarship of teaching and learning: The classroom can be a lab, too! Teaching of Psychology, 35, 262–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Snowman, J., & Biehler, R. (2002). Psychology applied to teaching (11th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  46. Tomcho, T. J., & Foels, R. (2008). Assessing effective teaching of psychology: A meta-analysis integration of learning outcomes. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 286–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vesilind, P. A. (2000). So you want to be a professor? A handbook for graduate students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Wesp, R., & Miele, J. (2008). Student opinions of the quality of teaching activities poorly predict pedagogical effectiveness. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 360–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitley, B. E., Perkins, D. V., Balogh, D. W., Kieth-Spiegel, P., & Wittig, A. F. (2004). Fairness in the classroom. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 345–354). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  50. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1999). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  51. Wilson, S. P., & Kipp, K. (2004). Simple and effective methods for talking about teaching. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 11–20). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  52. Wisher, R. A. (2004). Learning in the knowledge age: Up-front or at a distance. In Duffy, T. M., & Kirkley, J. R. (Eds.), Learner-centered theory and practice in distance education: Cases from higher education (pp. 183–197). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Zakrajsek, T. (1998). Developing effective lectures. In Perlman, B., McCann, L. I., & McFadden, S. H. (Eds.), Lessons learned: Practical advice for the teaching of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 81–86). Washington, DC: American Psychological Society.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethany C. Johnson
    • 1
  • David DiLillo
    • 1
  • Calvin P. Garbin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations