• Robin L. Shallcross
  • W. Brad Johnson
  • Sarah Hope Lincoln


As a central component in the training of graduate students in clinical, counseling and school psychology, the provision of clinical supervision has been undergoing an evolution and transformation in developing more explicit competencies. We review definitions of the terms of clinical supervision and competence, and define basic and expert levels of competence through a literature review and specific training examples of how to achieve these competency levels. The transformation this domain is experiencing can be summarized as a shift from learning how to supervise through observation or on the job training, to specific instruction and benchmarks of how to measure competence. This has implications of who is eligible to supervise by credentialing and licensing bodies, as well as capturing best practices in terms of providing excellent clinical, ethical and legal supervision.


Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Clinical Supervision Professional Psychology Supervisory Relationship Basic Competency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin L. Shallcross
    • 1
  • W. Brad Johnson
    • 2
  • Sarah Hope Lincoln
    • 3
  1. 1.Pacific UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.United States Naval AcademyAnnapolisUSA
  3. 3.Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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