Paleontology

1979 Edition

Angiospermae

  • Alan Graham
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-31078-9_8
The angiosperms are plants bearing reproductive structures organized as flowers. They constitute the major element of the modern flora, with some 220,000 species distributed among 12,000 genera and 330 families. The characteristic feature of the angiosperms is the flower which, phylogenetically, represents a vegetative shoot modified for reproduction ( Fig. 1). According to this view, proposed by the German philosopher Goethe in 1790, the sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil are modified leaves borne on an axis with shortened internodes. The product of reproduction in the angiosperms, as in the gymnosperms, is the seed; but in the flowering plants, this structure is borne within a fruit, as opposed to the gymnosperm seed, which is exposed on the surface of the cone scale.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alston, R. E., and Turner, B. L., 1963. Biochemical Systematics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 404p.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, C. B., ed., 1976. Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press, 341p.Google Scholar
  3. Cronquist, A., 1968. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 396p.Google Scholar
  4. Doyle, J. A., 1977. Patterns of evolution in early angiosperms, in A. Hallam, ed., Patterns of Evolution. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 501–546.Google Scholar
  5. Eames, A., 1961. Morphology of the Angiosperms. New York: McGraw-Hill, 518p.Google Scholar
  6. Ehrlich, P. R., and Raven, P. H., 1964. Butterflies and plants: A study in co-evolution, Evolution, 18, 586–608.Google Scholar
  7. Erdtman, G., 1952. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy—Angiosperms. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 539p.Google Scholar
  8. Esau, K., 1965. Plant Anatomy. New York: Wiley, 767p.Google Scholar
  9. Faegri, K., and van der Pijl, L., 1966. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 248p.Google Scholar
  10. Gibbs, R. D., 1974. Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants. 4 vols. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  11. Grant, V., and Grant, K. A., 1965. Flower Pollination in the Phlox Family. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 180p.Google Scholar
  12. Heywood, V. H., ed., 1968. Modern Methods in Plant Taxonomy. New York: Academic Press, 312p.Google Scholar
  13. Heywood, V. H., ed., 1971. Scanning Electron Microscopy—Systematic and Evolutionary Applications. New York: Academic Press, 331p.Google Scholar
  14. Hughes, N. F., 1976. Palaeobiology of Angiosperm Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 216p.Google Scholar
  15. Hutchinson, J., 1959. The Families of Flowering Plants. 2 Vols. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 792p.Google Scholar
  16. Huxley, J., ed., 1940. The New Systematics. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 583p.Google Scholar
  17. Janzen, D. H., 1966. Coevolution of mutualism between ants and acacias in Central America, Evolution, 20, 249–275.Google Scholar
  18. Janzen, D. H., 1974. Swollen-Thorn Acacias of Central America, Smithsonian Contrib. Bot., 13, 131p.Google Scholar
  19. Macior, L. W., 1971. Co-evolution of plants and animals—Systematic insights from plant-insect interactions, Taxon, 20, 17–28.Google Scholar
  20. Mayr, E., 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 797p.Google Scholar
  21. Scott, R. A., Barghoorn, E. S.; and Leopold, E. B., 1960. How old are the angiosperms? Amer. J. Sci., 258, 284–299.Google Scholar
  22. Scott, R. A.; Williams, P. L.; Craig, L. C.; Barghoorn, E. S.; Hickey, L. J.; and MacGintie, H. D., 1972. “Pre-Cretaceous” angiosperms from Utah: Evidence for Tertiary age of the palm woods and roots, Amer. J. Bot., 59, 886–896.Google Scholar
  23. Sinnott, E. W., 1960. Plant Morphogenesis. New York: McGraw-Hill, 550p.Google Scholar
  24. Sneath, P., and Sokal, R. R., 1973. Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: Freeman, 573p.Google Scholar
  25. Stebbins, G. L., 1971. Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. London: Edward Arnold, 216p.Google Scholar
  26. Takhtajan, A., 1969. Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst. Press, 310p.Google Scholar
  27. Thorne, R. F., 1968. Synopsis of a putatively phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants, Aliso, 6, 57–66.Google Scholar
  28. Valentine, D. H., ed., 1972. Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. New York: Academic Press, 446p.Google Scholar
  29. Van der Pijl, L., 1972. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 162p.Google Scholar
  30. Walker, J. W., et al., 1975. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny, Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden, 62, 515–834.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Graham

There are no affiliations available