There are multiple types of hypoparathyroidism. Acquired hypoparathyroidism is usually the result of trauma during head and neck surgery, most commonly involving the parathyroid or thyroid glands. In this setting, parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is decreased due to intra-operative damage to the gland. Autoimune hypoparathyroidism has also been described and is a feature of the familial polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I. In this condition, a majority of patients have autoantibodies directed against the calcium sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism that prior to the availability of diagnostic testing might have been considered idiopathic.
Congenital hypoparathyroidism is usually caused by autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. This disorder is characterized by mild to moderate hypocalcemia, inappropriately normal or increased urinary calcium excretion, and normal (but inappropriately low) PTH secretion. It is the...