• Rafael Fernandez-Botran
Reference work entry


Chemotactic cytokines, small secreted cytokines.


Family of small cytokines with chemotactic properties that signal through seven transmembrane receptors coupled to GI proteins. Besides regulating leukocyte recruitment and migration, chemokines have many other physiologic functions, including angiogenesis/angiostasis, lymphocyte development, immunoregulation, and metastasis (1–3).


Although the first chemokines were originally identified and characterized based on their biological activity, many members of this family have been recently identified through the application of bioinformatics and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases (2).

Approximately 40 different chemokines have been identified to date. Chemokines have been classified into four subfamilies based on the motif displayed by the first two cysteine residues located near their N-terminal end: CC-, CXC-, C- and CX 3C (3,4). The CXC subfamily is further divided into two groups depending on the...
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  1. 1.
    Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae COC, Mukaida N, Matsushima K (1991) Properties of the novel supergene "intercrine" cytokine family. Ann Rev Immunol 9:617–648Google Scholar
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    Sallusto F, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A (2000) The role of chemokine receptors in primary, effector, and memory immune responses. Ann Rev Immunol 18:593–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Rossi D, Zlotnik A (2000) The biology of chemokines and their receptors. Ann Rev Immunol 18:217–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Zlotnik A, Yoshie O (2000) Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity. Immunity 12:121–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Schweickart VL, Raport CJ, Chantry D, Gray PW (1999) The chemokine gene family. Similar structures, diverse functions. In: Hébert CA (ed) Chemokines in Disease. Biology and Clinical Research. Humana Press, Totowa NJ, pp 3–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Fernandez-Botran
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA