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Beaufort Wind Scale

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Part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Science Series book series (EESS)

The Beaufort scale of wind velocity relates wind speed to the physical appearance of the sea surface by considering such factors as apparent wave height and the prominence of breakers, whitecaps, foam and spray. It is the oldest method of judging wind force. Originally devised by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy in 1805 to simplify the signaling of wind and weather conditions between sailing vessels, it has since been repeatedly modified to make it more relevant to modern navigation. Table B7 gives an updated modern version of the Beaufort scale, adapted from British Admiralty (1952), Thomson (1981), and US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (1984). Meyers et al. (1969) presented an elaborate version of the wind scale based on British Admiralty (1952), McEwen and Lewis (1953), and Pierson et al. (1953). Wind speed measured at 11 m (36 feet) above sea surface is usually applied to use the scale. The wave heights are approximate and represent fully arisen sea...

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  • DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3880-1_45
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Bibliography

  1. British Admiralty, 1952. Manual of Seamanship. London: H.M. Stationary Office.

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  2. McEwen, W.A. and Lewis, A.H., 1953. Encyclopedia of nautical knowledge. Cambridge, MD: Cornell Maritime Press.

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  3. Meyers, J.J., Holm, C.H., and McAllister, R.F., 1969. Handbook of ocean and underwater engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

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  4. Pierson, W.J., Neuman, G., and James, R.W., 1953. Practical methods for observing and forecasting ocean waves. New York: New York University, College of Engineering.

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  5. Thomson, R.E., 1981. Oceanography of British Columbia Coast. Sidney, B.C.: Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

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  6. US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center, 1984. Shore Protection Manual, 4th edn., Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office.

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Cross-references

  1. Climate Patterns in the Coastal Zone

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  2. Coastal Climate

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  3. Meteorologic Coastal Wind Effects on Coasts

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  4. Nearshore Wave Measurement

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  5. Wave Hindcasting

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© 2005 Springer

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Barua, D.K. (2005). Beaufort Wind Scale. In: Schwartz, M.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Encyclopedia of Earth Science Series. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3880-1_45

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