Eolianite, also known as aeolianite, (a)eolian calcarenite, calcareous (a)eolianite, dune limestone, dune sandstone, kurkar (Middle East) or kunkar (India), is a generally consolidated coastal rock formation consisting of at least partially lithified wind-blown sand. Strictly eolianite could include any wind-blown sediment, such as silt (loess, brickearth), clay (parna), and volcanic ash, but conventionally it is restricted to dune sand, although finer sediment is sometimes present. Typically, the dune sand has been partially cemented by secondary internal precipitation of carbonates from percolating groundwater. There is often evidence of several stages of such cementation. The proportions of carbonate vary, but are typically at least 50% and often more than 90%, derived from shell debris, coralline material, bryozoans, and foraminifera, which lived on the seafloor. There are varying proportions of non-calcareous sediment, mainly quartz (quartzose sandstones with less than 50%...
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