Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2005 Edition
| Editors: Maurice L. Schwartz

Environmental Quality

  • Michael J. Kennish
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3880-1_135

Introduction

Marine environmental quality has been defined by Harding (1992, p. 23 as “the condition of a particular marine environment (coastline, estuary, bay, harbor, nearshore and offshore waters, open ocean) measured in relation to each of its intended uses. It is usually assessed quantitatively and requires both indices of condition and change, and established guidelines and objectives set by environmental, health, and resource agencies.” The assessment of coastal marine environmental quality typically considers the intrinsic value of the environment as well as whether the environment supports certain intended uses such as swimming, shellfish harvesting, or mariculture. As noted by Harding (1992), it is necessary to investigate ecosystem attributes (e.g., primary productivity, biomass production, nutrient cycling, species diversity, and disease incidence) to accurately measure ecosystem changes due to multiple stresses, particularly those associated with pollution and physical...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Alongi, D.M., 1998. Coastal Ecosystem Processes. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aubrey, D.G., 1993. Coastal erosion’s influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change. Oceanus, 36: 5–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bailey, R.G., 1983. Delineation of ecosystem regions. Environmental Management, 7: 365–373.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barcena, A., 1992. An overview of the oceans in Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations conference on environment and development. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 107–111.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bewers, J.M., and Wells, P.G., 1992. Challenges for improved marine environmental protection. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 112–117.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boehlens, R.G.V., 1992. From policies to science: strategies for marine environmental protection. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 14–17.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boesch, D.F., Josselyn, M.N., Mehta, A.J., Morris, J.T., Nuttle, W.K., Simenstad, C.A., and Swift, D.J.P., 1994. Scientific assessment of coastal wetland loss, restoration, and management in Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(Special Issue): 103 pp.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bossi, R., and Cintron, G., 1990. Mangroves of the Wider Caribbean. Nairobi: U.N. Environment Program.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Capuzzo, J.M., and Kester, D.R. (eds.), 1987. Oceanic Processes in Marine Pollution, Vol. 1, Biological Processes and Wastes in the Ocean. Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chapman, P.M., Dexter, R.N., and Long, E.R., 1987. Synoptic measures of sediment contamination, toxicity, and infaunal community composition (The Sediment Quality Triad) in San Francisco Bay. Marire Ecology Progress Series, 37: 75–96.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clark, J.R., 1996. Coastal Zone Management Handbook. Boca Raton: Lewes Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clark, R.B., 1992. Marine Pollution, 3rd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coastal Area Management and Planning Network, 1989. The Status of Integrated Coastal Zone Management: A Global Assessment. Summary Report of a Workshop Convened at Charleston, South Carolina, July 4–9, Rosenstiel School of Marine Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Conomos, T.J., 1979. Properties and circulation of San Francisco Bay waters. In Conomos, T.J. (ed.), San Francisco Bay: The Urbanized Estuary. San Francisco: Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, California, pp. 47–81.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Costanza, R., Andrade, F., Antunes, P., van den Belt, M., Boersma, D., Boesch, D.F., Catarino, F., Hanna, S., Limburg, K., Low, B., Molitor, M., Pereira, J.G., Rayner, S., Santos, R., Wilson, J., and Young, M., 1998. Principles for sustainable governance of the oceans. Science, 281: 198–199.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Côté, R.P., 1992. Marine environmental management: status and prospects. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 18–22.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cronan, D.S. (ed.), 2000. Handbook of Marine Mineral Deposits. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eisma, D., 1998. Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fausch, D.D., Karr, J.R., and Yant, P.R., 1984. Regional application of an index of biotic integrity based on stream fish communities. Transaction Am. Fish. Society, 113: 39–55.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    GESAMP, 1982. Scientific Criteria for the Selection of Waste Disposal Sites at Sea. London: Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, Reports and Studies No. 16.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    GESAMP, 1990. The State of the Marine Environment. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goldberg, E.D., 1994. Coastal Zone Space-Prelude to Conflict? Paris: UNESCO, UNESCO Technical Report.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hameedi, M.J., 1997. Strategy for monitoring the environment in the coastal zone. In Haq, B.U. (ed.), Coastal Zone Management Imperative for Maritime Developing Nations. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 111–142.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hanson, P.J., Evans, D.W., and Colby, D.R., 1993. Assessment of elemental contamination in estuarine and coastal environments based on geochemical and statistical modeling of sediments. Marine Environmental Research, 36: 237–266.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harding, L.E., 1992. Measures of marine environmental quality. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 23–27.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hatcher, B.G., Johannes, R.E., and Robertson, A.I., 1989. Review of research relevant to the conservation of shallow tropical marine ecosystems. Oceangraphy Marine and Biology Annual Review, 27: 337–414.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hildebrand, L.P., and Norrena, E.J., 1992. Approaches and progress toward effective integrated coastal zone management. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 94–97.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holland, A.F., 1990. Near Coastal Program Plan for 1990: Estuaries. EPA 600/4-90-003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Howells, G., Calamari, D., Gray, J., and Wells, P.G., 1990. An analytical approach to assessment of long-term effects of low levels of contaminants in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 21: 371–377.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kennish, M.J., 1992. Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kennish, M.J. (ed.), 1997. Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kennish, M.J. (ed.), 2000. Estuary Restoration and Maintenance: The National Estuary Program. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lathrop, R.G., Jr., Bognar, J.A., Hendrickson, A.C., and Bowers, P.D., 1999. Data Synthesis Report for the Barnegat Bay Estuary Program: Habitat Loss and Alteration. Technical Report, Barnegat Bay Estuary Program, Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Linden, O., 1990. Human impact on tropical coastal zones. Natural Resources, 26: 3–17.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Livington, R.L., 1996. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal systems: relationships of physical alterations, salinity stratification, and hypoxia. In Vernberg, F.J., Vernberg, W.B., and Siewicki, T. (eds.), Sustainable Development in the Southeastern Coastal Zone. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, pp. 285–318.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Livington, R.L. (ed.), 2000. Eutrophication in Estuarine Systems of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Long, E.R., 1998. The use of biological measures in assessments of toxicants in the coastal zone. In Vernberg, F.J., Vernberg, W.B., and Siewicki, T. (eds.), Sustainable Development in the Southeastern Coastal Zone. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, pp. 187–219.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McDowell, J.E., 1993. How marine animals respond to toxic chemicals in coastal ecosystems. Oceanus, 36: 56–61.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McIntyre, A.D., 1992. The current state of the oceans. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 28–31.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    National Research Council, 1990. Managing Troubled Waters: The Role of Marine Environmental Monitoring. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nolkaemper, A., 1992. Marine pollution from land-based sources: towards a global approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24: 8–12.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    NOAA, 1991. Second Summary of Data on Chemical Concentrations in Sediments from the National Status and Trends Program. NOAA Technical. Mem. NOS OMA 59, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nordstrom, K.F., 1994a. Beaches and dunes of human-altered coasts. Prog. Geogr., 18: 497–516.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nordstrom, K.F., 1994b. Developed coasts. In Carter, R.W.G., and Woodroffe, C.D. (eds.), Coastal Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 477–495.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Connor, T.P., 1990. Coastal Environmental Quality in the United States, Chemical Contamination in Sediments and Tissues. A Special NOAA 20th Anniversary Report. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean Resources Conservation and Assessment, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    O’Connor, T.P., 1992. Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the First Five Years of NOAA Mussel Watch Project. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean Resources Conservation and Assessment, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    O’Connor, T.P., 1994. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program: National monitoring of chemical contamination in the coastal United States. In Clothern, C.R., and Ross, N.P. (eds.), Environmental Statistics, Assessment, and Forcasting. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, pp. 331–349.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Connor, T.P., 1996. Coastal sediment contamination in the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem. In Sherman, K., Jaworsky, N.A., and Smayda, T.J. (eds.), The Northeast Shelf Ecosystem: Assessment, Sustainability, and Management. Cambridge: Blackwell Science, pp. 239–257.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    O’Connor, T.P., and Beliaeff, B., 1995. Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project. NOAA Technical Report, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    O’Connor, T.P., Cantillo, A.Y., and Lauenstein, G.G., 1994. Monitoring of temporal trends in chemical contamination by the NOAA National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Project. In Kramer, K.L.M. (ed.), Biomonitoring of Coastal Waters and Estuaries. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 29–50.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ong, J. E., 1994. The status of mangroves in ASEAN. In Wilkinson, C.R. (ed.), Living Coastal Resources of Southeast Asia: Status and Management. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science, pp. 52–75.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Paul, J.F., Scott, K.J., Holland, A. F., Weisberg, S.B., Summers, J.K., and Robertson, A., 1992. The estuarine component of the E.P.A’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Chemical Ecology, 7: 93–116.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pearson, T.H., and Rosenberg, R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 16: 229–311.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pinet, P.R., 2000. Invitation to Oceanography, 2nd edn. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pirie, R.G., 1996. US ocean resources 2000: a national plan for growth. In Pirie, R.G. (ed.), Oceanography: Contemporary Readings in Ocean Sciences, 3rd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 283–292.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pulich, W.M., White, W.A., Castiglione, M., and Zimmerman, R.J., 1991. Status of submerged vegetation in the Galveston Bay system. In Shipley, F.S., and Kiesling, R.W. (eds.), Proceedings of the Galveston Bay Characterization Workshop. Webster (Texas): Galveston Bay National Estuary Program Publication GBNEP-6, pp. 127–132.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schimmel, S.C., Melzian, B.D., Campbell, D.E., Strobel, C.J., Benyi, S.J., Rosen, J.S., and Buffum, H.W., 1994. Statistical Summary: EMAPEstuaries, Virginian Province—1991. EPA/620/R-94/005, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shipley, F.S., and Kiesling, R.W. (eds.), 1994. The State of the Bay: A Characterization of the Galveston Bay Ecosystem. Webster (Texas): Galveston Bay National Estuary Program Publication GBNEP-44.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Simboura, N., Zenetos, A., Panayotidis, P., and Makra, A., 1995. Changes in benthic community structure along an environmental pollution gradient. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30: 470–474.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sissenwine, M.P., and Rosenberg, A.A., 1993. US fisheries: status, longterm potential yields, and stock management ideas. Oceanus, 36: 48–54.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sorensen, J.C., and McCreary, S.J., 1990. Institutional Arrangements for Managing Coastal Resources and Environments. NPS/US AID Series, National Park Service, Office of International Affairs, Washington, DC: Coastal Management Publication No. 1 [Rev].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Strieb, M. (and the Living Resources Work Group), 1993. Assessment of Living Resources. Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan Supporting Document. New York: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Terrell, T.T., 1979. Regionalization of Coastal Ecosystems of the United States and its Territories. Washington, DC: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Service, FWS/Physical OBS-79/80.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tiner, R.W., Jr., 1985. Wetlands of Delaware. Cooperative Publication, National Wetlands Inventory Project, US Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Newton Corner, Massachusetts, and Division of Environmental Control, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, Delaware.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tiner, R.W., Jr., 1990. Pennsylvania’s Wetlands: Current Status and Recent Trends. US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Technical Report. Newton Corner, MA.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    USEPA, 1992. National Estuary Program Guidance: Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans Content and Approval Requirements. EPA 842-B-92-002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC: EPA 842-B-92-002.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    USEPA, 1994. A National Estuary Program Guidance: Technical Characterization in the National Estuary Program. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 842-B-94-006.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Viles, H., and Spencer, T., 1995. Coastal Problems: Geomorphology, Ecology, and Society at the Coast. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Warwick, R.M., Pearson, T.H., and Ruswahyuni, M., 1987. Detection of pollution effects on marine macrobenthos: further evaluation of the species abundance/biomass method. Marine Biology, 95: 193–200.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Watzin, M.C., and Gosselink, J.G., 1992. The Fragile Fringe: Coastal Wetlands of the Continental United States. Technical Report, Louisiana Sea Grant Program, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weisberg, S.B., Frithsen, J.B., Holland, A.F., Paul, J.F., Scott, K.J., Summers, J.K., Wilson, H.T., Valente, R., Heimbuch, D.G., Gerritsen, J., Schimmel, S.C., and Latimer, R.W., 1992. EMAPEstuaries Virginian Province 1990 Demonstration Project Report. Narragansett, Rhode Island: US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, EPA 600R-92/100.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wolfe, D.A., Long, E.K., and Robertson, A., 1993. The NS&T bioeffects surveys: design strategies and preliminary results. In Magoon, O.T., Wilson, W.S., Converse, H., and Tobin, L.T. (eds.), Coastal Zone’ 93: Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, Vol. 1. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 298–312.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Woodroffe, C., 1993. Sea level. Progress in Physical Geography, 17: 359–368.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yap, H.T., 1992. Marine environmental problems: experiences of developing regions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 25: 37–40.Google Scholar

Cross-references

  1. 1.
    Beach ErosionGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cleaning BeachesGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coastal Engineering (see Shore Protection Structures and Navigation Structures)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coastline ChangesGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dams, Effect on CoastsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Demography of Coastal PopulationsGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dredging of Coastal EnvironmentsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Human Impact on CoastsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mangrove CoastsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meteorological Effect on CoastsGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mining of Coastal MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Monitoring, Coastal EcologyGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ReclamationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salt MarshGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sea-Level Rise, EffectGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sediment Transport (see Cross-Shore Sediment Transport and Longshore Sediment Transport)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shore Protection StructuresGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tourism and Coastal DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Water QualityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Kennish

There are no affiliations available