General Geology

1988 Edition

Cities, geologic effects of

  • M. Grant Gross
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-30844-X_17

Since 1800, cities have increased in size and number. In the process of building (or rebuilding) and providing needed services to urban populations, cities have emerged as geologically important factors, altering shorelines, creating sediment deposits, and changing river discharges. These effects can be demonstrated in virtually any city. The magnitude and geological significance of such effects and their causes are illustrated in this entry using the New York metropolitan region.

In every city, urban effects were initially small and affected only the area near the city center. With the steam engine and the introduction of large-scale dredging in the late 1880s, however, the changes have grown in size and are particularly evident in coastal cities. Now these changes are large enough to leave an imprint on entire estuarine systems and adjoining continental shelves.

Landfill Effects

Cities are prolific waste producers. These wastes are usually collected and buried in landfills beyond the...
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References

  1. Blake, N. M., 1956, Water for the Cities. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 341p.Google Scholar
  2. Gross, M. G., 1972, Geologic aspects of waste solids and marine waste deposits, New York Metropolitan Region, Geol. Soc. America Bull. 83, 3163–3176.Google Scholar
  3. Gunnerson, C. G., 1973, Debris accumulation in ancient and modern cities, Jour. Environmental Engineering Division 99, 229–243.Google Scholar
  4. Klimm, L. E., 1956, Man's ports and channels, in W. L. Thomas, Jr., ed., Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, Il.: University of Chicago Press, 522–541.Google Scholar
  5. Legget, R. F., 1973, Cities and Geology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 624p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Grant Gross

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