The Order Planctomycetales, Including the Genera Planctomyces, Pirellula, Gemmata and Isosphaera and the Candidatus Genera Brocadia, Kuenenia and Scalindua

  • Naomi Ward
  • James T. Staley
  • John A. Fuerst
  • Stephen Giovannoni
  • Heinz Schlesner
  • Eiko Stackebrandt
Reference work entry


The order Planctomycetales comprises a remarkable group of budding bacteria. They and their nearest relatives, the chlamydiae (Weisburg et al., 1986; see The Genus Chlamydia–Medical in this Volume), are the only known cell-wall containing bacteria that lack peptidoglycan. Furthermore, the planctomycetes are morphologically distinctive because of their budding division, their spherical to ovoid cells with crateriform pits (Figs. 1and 2), and the nonprosthecate appendages (stalks) produced by some members of the group (Fig. 3). Multicellular aggregates or rosettes are formed by some species that produce polar holdfasts (Fig. 3). One genus, Isosphaera, is a multicellular filamentous bacterium that moves by gliding. Other motile members of the group produce flagella. A relatively recent addition to the morphological oddity of the planctomycetes is the discovery of cellular compartmentalization, posing a challenge to the traditionally held view of the prokaryote:eukaryote...


Intracytoplasmic Membrane Compost Heap Soil Extract Agar Molecular Ecology Study Subpolar Flagellum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Akkerman, H. W., and A. Eisenstark. 1974 The present state of phage taxonomy Intervirol. 3 201–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauld, J., and J. T. Staley. 1976 Planctomyces maris sp. nov.: A marine isolate of the Planctomyces-Blastocaulis group of budding bacteria J. Gen. Microbiol. 97 45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bel’kova, N. L., L. Denisova, E. N. Manakova, E. F. Zaichikov, and M. A. Grachev. 1996 Species diversity of deep water microorganisms in Lake Baikal, detected by 16S rRNA sequences [in Russian] Dokl. Akad. Nauk. 348(5) 692–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bomar, D., S. Giovannoni, and E. Stackebrandt. 1988 A unique type of eubacterial 5S rRNA in members of the order Planctomycetales J. Molec. Evol. 27(2) 121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borneman, J., and E. W. Triplett. 1997 Molecular microbial diversity in soils from eastern Amazonia: Evidence for unusual microorganisms and microbial population shifts associated with deforestation Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(7) 2647–2653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowman, J. P., and R. D. McCuaig. 2003 Biodiversity, community structural shifts, and biogeography of prokaryotes within Antarctic continental shelf sediment Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(5) 2463–2483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brochier, C., and H. Philippe. 2002 Phylogeny: A non-hyperthermophilic ancestor for bacteria Nature 417 (6886) 244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brosius, J., M. L. Palmer, P. J. Kennedy, and H. F. Noller. 1978 Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75(10) 4801–4805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buckley, D. H., and T. M. Schmidt. 2003 Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in soils from agro-ecosystems Environ. Microbiol. 5(6) 441–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler, M. K., J. Wang, R. I. Webb, and J. A. Fuerst. 2002 Molecular and ultrastructural confirmation of classification of ATCC 35122 as a strain of Pirellula staleyi Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52(Part 5) 1663–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, H. W., A. Kuspa, I. M. Keseler, and L. J. Shimkets. 1991 Physical map of the Myxococcus xanthus chromosome J. Bacteriol. 173(6) 2109–2115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensson, M., L. L. Blackall, and T. Welander. 1998 Metabolic transformations and characterisation of the sludge: Community in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 49 226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Claus, H., H. H. Martin, C. A. Jantos, and H. Konig. 2000 A search for beta-lactamase in chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, planctomycetes, and cyanelles: Bacteria and bacterial descendants at different phylogenetic positions and stages of cell wall development Microbiol. Res. 155(1) 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen-Bazire, G., W. R. Sistrom, and R. Y. Stanier. 1957 Kinetic studies of pigment synthesis by non-sulphur purple bacteria J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 49 25–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole, S. T., and I. Saint Girons. 1994 Bacterial genomics FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 14(2) 139–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins, M. D., and D. Jones. 1981 Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication Microbiol. Rev. 45(2) 316–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooney, R. P., O. Pantos, M. D. Le Tissier, M. R. Barer, A. G. O’Donnell, and J. C. Bythell. 2002 Characterization of the bacterial consortium associated with black band disease in coral using molecular microbiological techniques Environ. Microbiol. 4(7) 401–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahlberg, C., M. Bergstrom, and M. Hermansson. 1998 In situ detection of high levels of horizontal plasmid transfer in marine bacterial communities Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(7) 2670–2675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dalsgaard, T., and B. Thamdrup. 2002 Factors controlling anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite in marine sediments Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(8) 3802–3808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dalsgaard, T., D. E. Canfield, J. Petersen, B. Thamdrup, and J. Acuna-Gonzalez. 2003 N2 production by the anammox reaction in the anoxic water column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica Nature 422(6932) 606–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeLong, E. F., D. G. Franks and A. I. Alldredge. 1993 Phylogenetic diversity of aggregate-attached vs. free-living marine bacterial assemblages Limnol. Oceanogr. 38 924–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Erdmann, V. A., and J. Wolters. 1986 Collection of published 5S, 5.8S and 4.5S ribosomal RNA sequences Nucleic Acids Res. 14 (Suppl.) r1–r59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fonstein, M., and R. Haselkorn. 1995 Physical mapping of bacterial genomes J. Bacteriol. 177(12) 3361–3369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Franzmann, P. D., and V. B. D. Skerman. 1981 Agitococcus lubricus gen. nov. sp. nov., a lipolytic, twitching coccus from freshwater Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31 177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Franzmann, P. 1983 The Aerobic, Heterotrophic, Non-gliding Bacteria of the Fresh Waters of South-east Queensland [thesis] University of Queensland Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  26. Franzmann, P. D., and V. B. Skerman. 1984 Gemmata obscuriglobus, a new genus and species of the budding bacteria Ant. v. Leeuwenhoek 50(3) 261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Freitag, T. E., and J. I. Prosser. 2003 Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within anoxic marine sediments Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(3) 1359–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frias-Lopez, J., A. L. Zerkle, G. T. Bonheyo and B. W. Fouke. 2002 Partitioning of bacterial communities between seawater and healthy, black band diseased, and dead coral surfaces Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(5) 2214–2228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Friedrich, A. B., H. Merkert, T. Fendert, J. Hacker and U. Hentschel. 1999 Microbial diversity in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola (formerly Verongia cavernicola) analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Mar. Biol. 134 461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Friedrich, A. B., J. Hacker, I. Fischer, P. Proksch and U. Hentschel. 2001 Temporal variations of the microbial community associated with the mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 38 105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuerst, J. A., S. K. Sambhi, J. L. Paynter, J. A. Hawkins and J. G. Atherton. 1991 Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(11) 3127–3134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fuerst, J. A., and R. I. Webb. 1991 Membrane-bounded Nucleoid in the Eubacterium Gemmatata obscuriglobus Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88(18) 8184–8188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fuerst, J. A. 1995 The planctomycetes: Emerging models for microbial ecology, evolution and cell biology Microbiology 141 (Part 7) 1493–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuerst, J. A., H. G. Gwilliam, M. Lindsay, A. Lichanska, C. Belcher, J. E. Vickers, and P. Hugenholtz. 1997 Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1) 254–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fujii, T., H. Sugino, J. D. Rouse, and K. Furukawa. 2002 Characterization of the microbial community in an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing biofilm cultured on a nonwoven biomass carrier J. Biosci. Bioengin 194 412–418Google Scholar
  36. Gebers, R., U. Wehmeyer, T. Roggentin, H. Schlesner, J. Koelbel-Boelke, and P. Hirsch. 1985 Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions and nucleotide distributions of 65 strains of budding bacteria Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35(3) 260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geitler, L. 1955 Torulopsidosira n. gen., ein neuer hefeartiger Pilz, und andere knospende Mikroorganismen Arch. Mikrobiol. 22 324–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geitler, L. 1963 Die angebliche Cyanophyceae Isosphaera pallida is ein hefeartiger Pilz Arch. Mikrobiol. 46 238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gimesi, N. 1924 Hydrobiologiai Tanulmanyok (Hydrobiologische Studien). I: Planctomyces bekefii Gim. nov. gen. et sp. [in Hungarian, with German translation] Kiadja a Magyar Ciszterci Rend Budapest, Hungary 1–8Google Scholar
  40. Giovannoni, S. J., W. Godchaux, 3rd, E. Schabtach, and R. W. Castenholz. 1987a Cell wall and lipid composition of Isosphaera pallida, a budding eubacterium from hot springs J. Bacteriol. 169(6) 2702–2707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Giovannoni, S. J., E. Schabtach, and R. W. Castenholz. 1987b Isosphaera pallida, gen., and comb. nov., a gliding, budding eubacterium from hot springs Arch. Microbiol. 147 276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gliesche, C. 1980 In: Isolierung und Charakterisierung von Bakteriophagen knospender Bakterien [Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages of Budding Bacteria] Institute for General Microbiology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  43. Glöckner, F. O., B. M. Fuchs and R. Amann. 1999 Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: A first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65(8) 3721–3726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Glöckner, F. O., M. Kube, M. Bauer, H. Teeling, T. Lombardot, W. Ludwig, D. Gade, A. Beck, K. Borzym, K. Heitmann, R. Rabus, H. Schlesner, R. Amann and R. Reinhardt. 2003 Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. strain 1 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100(14) 8298–8303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Granberg, K. 1969 Kasviplanktonin merkityksesta vesilaitoksen raakvaveden tarkkailussa Limnol. Foren. I Finland Limnol. Symp. 1968 34–43Google Scholar
  46. Gray, J. P., and R. P. Herwig. 1996 Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62(11) 4049–4059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Griepenburg, U., N. Ward-Rainey, S. Mohamed, H. Schlesner, H. Marxsen, F. A. Rainey, E. Stackebrandt, and G. Auling. 1999 Phylogenetic diversity, polyamine pattern and DNA base composition of members of the order Planctomycetales Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (Part 2) 689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Henrici, A. T., and D. E. Johnson. 1935 Studies of freshwater bacteria. II. Stalked bacteria, a new order of schizomycetes J. Bacteriol. 30 61–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirsch, P. 1972 Two identical genera of budding and stalked bacteria: Planctomyces Gimesi 1924 and Blastocaulis Henrici and Johnson 1935 Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22(2) 107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hirsch, P., M. Müller and H. Schlesner. 1977 New aquatic budding and prosthecate bacteria and their taxonomic position Proceedings of the Symposium on Aquatic Microbiology, Lancaster, UK Academic Press London, UK 107–133Google Scholar
  51. Hirsch, P., and M. Müller. 1985 Planctomyces limnophilus sp. nov., a stalked and budding bacterium from freshwater Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6 276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hugenholtz, P., C. Pitulle, K. L. Hershberger and N. R. Pace. 1998 Novel division level bacterial diversity in a Yellowstone hot spring J. Bacteriol. 180(2) 366–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Humayoun, S. B., N. Bano, and J. T. Hollibaugh. 2003 Depth distribution of microbial diversity in Mono Lake, a meromictic soda lake in California Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(2) 1030–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jenkins, C., and J. A. Fuerst. 2001 Phylogenetic analysis of evolutionary relationships of the planctomycete division of the domain bacteria based on amino acid sequences of elongation factor Tu J. Molec. Evol. 52(5) 405–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jenkins, C., V. Kedar, and J. A. Fuerst. 2002 Gene discovery within the planctomycete division of the domain Bacteria using sequence tags from genomic DNA libraries Genome Biol. 3 6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jetten, M. S., M. Wagner, J. Fuerst, M. van Loosdrecht, G. Kuenen, and M. Strous. 2001 Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (“anammox”) process Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 12(3) 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kahan, D. 1961 Thermophilic microorganism of uncertain taxonomic status from the hot springs of Tiberias (Israel) Nature 192(4808) 1212–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kerger, B. D., C. A. Mancuso, P. D. Nichols, D. C. White, T. Langworthy, M. Sittig, H. Schlesner, and P. Hirsch. 1988 The budding bacteria, Pirellula and Planctomyces, with atypical 16S rRNA and absence of peptidoglycan, show eubacterial phospholipids and uniquely high proportions of long chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipopolysaccharide lipid A Arch. Microbiol. 149 255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kieser, H. M., T. Kieser, and D. A. Hopwood. 1992 A combined genetic and physical map of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) chromosome J. Bacteriol. 174(17) 5496–5507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kölbel-Boelke, J., R. Gebers, and P. Hirsch. 1985 Genome size determinations for 33 strains of budding bacteria Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35(3) 270–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. König, E., H. Schlesner, and P. Hirsch. 1984 Cell wall studies on budding bacteria of the Planctomyces/Pasteuria group and on a Prosthecomicrobium sp Arch. Microbiol. 138 200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krave, A. S., B. Lin, M. Braster, A. M. Laverman, N. M. van Straalen, W. F. Roling, and H. W. van Verseveld. 2002 Stratification and seasonal stability of diverse bacterial communities in a Pinus merkusii (pine) forest soil in central Java, Indonesia Environ. Microbiol. 4(6) 361–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kristiansen, J. 1971 On Planctomyces bekefii and its occurrence in Danish lakes and ponds Bot. Tidsskr. 66 293–392Google Scholar
  64. Kustu, S., E. Santero, J. Keener, D. Popham, and D. Weiss. 1989 Expression of sigma 54 (ntrA)-dependent genes is probably united by a common mechanism Microbiol. Rev. 53(3) 367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuypers, M. M., A. O. Sliekers, G. Lavik, M. Schmid, B. B. Jorgensen, J. G. Kuenen, J. S. Sinninghe Damste, M. Strous, and M. S. Jetten. 2003 Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea Nature 422(6932) 608–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lapage, S. P., P. H. A. Sneath, E. F. Lessel, V. B. D. Skerman, H. P. R. Seeliger, and W. A. Clark. 1992 International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria American Society for Microbiology Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  67. Leary, B. A., N. Ward-Rainey, and T. R. Hoover. 1998 Cloning and characterization of Planctomyces limnophilus rpoN: Complementation of a Salmonella typhimurium rpoN mutant strain Gene 221(1) 151–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leblond, P., M. Redenbach, and J. Cullum. 1993 Physical map of the Streptomyces lividans 66 genome and comparison with that of the related strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) J. Bacteriol. 175(11) 3422–3429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Liesack, W., H. Koenig, H. Schlesner, and P. Hirsch. 1986 Chemical composition of the peptidoglycan-free cell envelopes of budding bacteria of the Pirella/Planctomyces group Arch. Microbiol. 145 361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liesack, W., and E. Stackebrandt. 1989 Evidence for unlinked rrn operons in the Planctomycete Pirellula marina J. Bacteriol. 171(9) 5025–5030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Liesack, W., and E. Stackebrandt. 1992a Occurrence of novel groups of the domain Bacteria as revealed by analysis of genetic material isolated from an Australian terrestrial environment Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 174 5072–5078Google Scholar
  72. Liesack, W., R. Soeller, T. Stewart, H. Haas, S. Giovannoni, and E. Stackebrandt. 1992b The influence of tachytelically (rapidly) evolving sequences on the topology of phylogenetic trees: Intrafamily relationships and the phylogenetic position of Planctomycetaceae as revealed by comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15 357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liles, M. R., B. F. Manske, S. B. Bintrim, J. Handelsman, and R. M. Goodman. 2003 A census of rRNA genes and linked genomic sequences within a soil metagenomic library Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(5) 2684–2691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lindsay, M. R., R. I. Webb, and J. A. Fuerst. 1997 Pirellulosomes: A new type of membrane-bounded cell compartment in planctomycete bacteria of the genus Pirellula Microbiology 143 739–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lindsay, M. R., R. I. Webb, M. Strous, M. S. Jetten, M. K. Butler, R. J. Forde, and J. A. Fuerst. 2001 Cell compartmentalisation in planctomycetes: Novel types of structural organisation for the bacterial cell Arch. Microbiol. 175(6) 413–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu, J. R., C. A. McKenzie, E. M. Seviour, R. I. Webb, L. L. Blackall, C. P. Saint, and R. J. Seviour. 2001 Phylogeny of the filamentous bacterium “Nostocoida limicola” III from activated sludge Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Part 1) 195–202Google Scholar
  77. Llobet-Brossa, E., R. Rossello-Mora, and R. Amann. 1998 Microbial community composition of Wadden Sea sediments as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(7) 2691–2696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lopez-Garcia, P., A. Lopez-Lopez, D. Moreira, and F. Rodriguez-Valera. 2001 Diversity of free-living prokaryotes from a deep-sea site at the Antarctic Polar Front FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 36(2–3) 193–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lyman, J., and R. H. Fleming. 1940 Composition of sea water J. Mar. Res. (Sears Foundation) 3 134–146Google Scholar
  80. Majewski, D. M. 1985 Molekularbiologische Charakterisierung von Bakteriophagen knospender Bakterien [Molecular Biological Characterisation of Bacteriophages of Budding Bacteria] Institute for General Microbiology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  81. Menke, M. A. O. H., W. Liesack, and E. Stackebrandt. 1991 Ribotyping of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and organization of rrn operonsin members of the bacterial genera Gemmata, Planctomyces, Thermotoga, Thermus and Verrucomicrobium Arch. Microbiol. 155 263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Metchnikoff, M. E. 1888 Pasteuria ramosa, un representant des bacteries a division longitudinale Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 2 165–170Google Scholar
  83. Meusnier, I., J. L. Olsen, W. T. Stam, C. Destombe and M. Valero. 2001 Phylogenetic analyses of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the Mediterranean introduction Molec. Ecol. 10(4) 931–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Neef, A., R. Amann, H. Schlesner, and K.-H. Schleifer. 1998 Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: In situ detection of planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes Microbiology 144 (Part 12) 3257–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Norris, T. B., J. M. Wraith, R. W. Castenholz, and T. R. McDermott. 2002 Soil microbial community structure across a thermal gradient following a geothermal heating event Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12) 6300–6309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pantos, O., R. P. Cooney, M. D. Le Tissier, M. R. Barer, A. G. O’Donnell, and J. C. Bythell. 2003 The bacterial ecology of a plague-like disease affecting the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis Environ. Microbiol. 5(5) 370–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson, S. N., and C. M. Fraser. 2001 The complexity of simplicity Genome Biol. 2 2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pfennig, N., and H.-G. Trüper. 1981 Isolation of members of the families Chromatiaceae and Chlorobiaceae In: M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows, and H. G. Schlegel. The Prokaryotes Springer-Verlag New York, NY 279–289Google Scholar
  89. Pierson, B. K., S. J. Giovannoni, D. A. Stahl, and R. W. Castenholz. 1985 Heliothrix oregonensis, gen. nov., sp. nov., a phototrophic filamentous gliding bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a Arch. Microbiol. 142(2) 164–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pukall, R., D. Buntefuss, A. Fruhling, M. Rohde, R. M. Kroppenstedt, J. Burghardt, P. Lebaron, L. Bernard, and E. Stackebrandt. 1999 Sulfitobacter mediterraneus sp. nov., a new sulfite-oxidizing member of the alpha-Proteobacteria Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (Part 2) 513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rabus, R., D. Gade, R. Helbig, M. Bauer, F. O. Glockner, M. Kube, H. Schlesner, R. Reinhardt, and R. Amann. 2002 Analysis of N-acetylglucosamine metabolism in the marine bacterium Pirellula sp. strain 1 by a proteomic approach Proteomics 2(6) 649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rappe, M. S., P. F. Kemp, and S. J. Giovannoni. 1997 Phylogenetic diversity of marine coastal picoplankton 16S rRNA genes cloned from the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Limnol. Oceanogr. 42 811–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ravenschlag, K., K. Sahm, J. Pernthaler, and R. Amann. 1999 High bacterial diversity in permanently cold marine sediments Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65(9) 3982–3989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Reanney, D. C., and H. W. Akkermann. 1982 Comparative biology and evolution of bacteriophages Adv. Vir. Res. 27 205–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Reed, D. L., and M. S. Hafner. 2002 Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial communities associated with ectoparasitic chewing lice of pocket gophers: A culture-independent approach Microb. Ecol. 44(1) 78–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rönner, S., W. Liesack, J. Wolters, and E. Stackebrandt. 1991 Cloning and sequencing of a large fragment of the atpD-gene of Pirellula marina: A contribution to the phylogeny of Planctomycetales Endocytol. Cell. Res. 7 219–229Google Scholar
  97. Roussel, Y., M. Pebay, G. Guedon, J. M. Simonet, and B. Decaris. 1994 Physical and genetic map of Streptococcus thermophilus A054 J. Bacteriol. 176(24) 7413–7422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schlesner, H., and P. Hirsch. 1984 Assignment of ATCC 27377 to Pirella gen. nov. as Pirella staleyicomb. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34(4) 492–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schlesner, H. 1986a Pirella marina sp. nov., a budding, peptidoglycan-less bacterium from brackish water Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8 177–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schlesner, H., and E. Stackebrandt. 1986b Assignment of the genera Planctomyces and Pirella to a new family Planctomycetaceae fam. nov., and description of the order Planctomycetalesord. nov Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 8 174–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schlesner, H., and P. Hirsch. 1987 Rejection of the genus name Pirella for pear-shaped budding bacteria and proposal to create the genus Pirellula gen. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37(4) 441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schlesner, H. 1989 Planctomyces brasiliensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium from a salt pit Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 12 159–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schlesner, H. 1994 The development of media suitable for the microorganisms morphologically resembling Planctomyces spp., Pirellula spp., and other Planctomycetales from various aquatic habitats using dilute media Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 17 135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schmid, M., U. Twachtmann, M. Klein, M. Strous, S. Juretschko, M. Jetten, J. W. Metzger, K. H. Schleifer, and M. Wagner. 2000 Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23(1) 93–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmid, M., K. Walsh, R. Webb, W. I. C. Rijpstra, K. van de Pas Schoonen, M. J. Verbruggen, T. Hill, B. Moffett, J. A. Fuerst, S. Schouten, J. S. S. Damsté, J. Harris, P. Shaw, M. Jetten, and M. Strous. 2003 Candidatus “Scalindua brodae”, spec. nov., Candidatus “Scalindua wagneri”, spec. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 26 529–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schmidt, J. M. 1978a Isolation and ultrastructure of freshwater strains of Planctomyces Curr. Microbiol. 1 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1978b Morphological diversity of freshwater bacteria belonging to the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group as observed in natural populations and enrichments Curr. Microbiol. 1 325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1979 Morphotype V of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria Planctomyces guttaeformis Hortobagyi (sensu Hajdu) Curr. Microbiol. 2 195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1980a Current sightings, at the respective type localities and elsewhere, of Planctomyces bekefii Gimesi 1924 and Blastocaulis sphaerica Henrici and Johnson 1935 Curr. Microbiol. 4 183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1980b Some ultrastructural features of Planctomyces bekefii, morphotype I of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria Curr. Microbiol. 4 189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1981a The Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group of the budding and appendaged bacteria In: M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows, and H. G. Schlegel. The Prokaryotes Springer-Verlag New York, NY 496–504Google Scholar
  112. Schmidt, J. M., W. P. Sharp, and M. P. Starr. 1981b Manganese and iron encrustations and other features of Planctomyces crassus Hortobagyi 1965, morphotype Ib of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group of budding and appendaged bacteria, examined by electron microscopy and X-ray micro-analysis Curr. Microbiol. 5 241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmidt, J. M., and M. P. Starr. 1982a Ultrastructural features of budding cells in a prokaryote belonging to morphotype IV of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group Curr. Microbiol. 7 7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schmidt, J. M., W. P. Sharp, and M. P. Starr. 1982b Metallic-oxide encrustations of the nonprosthecate stalks of naturally occurring populations of Planctomyces bekefii Curr. Microbiol. 7 389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Selenska-Pobell S., G. Kampf, K. Hemming, G. Radeva, G. Satchanska. 2001 Bacterial diversity in soil samples from two uranium waste piles as determined by rep-APD, RISA and 16S rDNA retrieval Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 79(2) 149–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Semenova, E. A., and K. D. Kuznedelov. 1998 Species diversity of picoplankton from Lake Baikal by comparative analysis of 5’-terminal segments of 16S rRNA genes [in Russian] Mol. Biol. (Mosow) 32(5) 895–901Google Scholar
  117. Sinninghe Damste, J. S., M. Strous, W. I. Rijpstra, E. C. Hopmans, J. A. Geenevasen, A. C. van Duin, L. A. van Niftrik, and M. S. Jetten. 2002 Linearly concatenated cyclobutane lipids form a dense bacterial membrane Nature 419(6908) 708–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sittig, M., and H. Schlesner. 1993 Chemotaxonomic investigation of various prosthecate and/or budding bacteria Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 16 92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Skerman, V. B. 1968 A new type of micromanipulator and microforge J. Gen. Microbiol. 54(2) 287–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stackebrandt, E., W. Ludwig, W. Schubert, F. Klink, H. Schlesner, T. Roggentin, and P. Hirsch. 1984 Molecular genetic evidence for early evolutionary origin of budding peptidoglycan-less eubacteria Nature 307 (5953) 735–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stackebrandt, E., A. Fischer, P. Hirsch, T. Roggentin, and H. Schlesner. 1986a The phylogeny of an ancient group of budding peptidoglycan-less eubacteria: The genera Planctomyces and Pirella Endocyt. Cell. Res. 3 29–40Google Scholar
  122. Stackebrandt, E., U. Wehmeyer, and W. Liesack. 1986b 16S ribosomal RNA-and cell wall analysis of Gemmata obscuriglobus, a new member of the order Planctomycetales FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 37 289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stackebrandt, E., W. Liesack and B. M. Goebel. 1993 Bacterial diversity in a soil sample from a subtropical Australian environment as determined by 16S rDNA analysis FASEB J. 7(1) 232–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Staley, J. T. 1968 Prosthecomicrobium and Ancalomicrobium: New prosthecate freshwater bacteria J. Bacteriol. 95(5) 1921–1942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Staley, J. T. 1973b Budding bacteria of the Pasteuria-Blastobacter group Can. J. Microbiol. 19(5) 609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Staley, J. T., K. C. Marshall, and V. B. D. Skerman. 1980 Budding and prosthecate bacteria from fresh water habitats of various trophic states Microb. Ecol. 5 245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Starr, M. P., R. M. Sayre, and J. M. Schmidt. 1983 Assignment of ATCC 27377 to Planctomyces staleyisp. nov., and conservation of Pasteuria ramosa Metchnikoff 1888 on the basis of type descriptive material; request for an opinion Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33(3) 666–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Starr, M. P., and J. M. Schmidt. 1984 Planctomyces stranskae (ex Wawrik 1952) sp. nov., nom. rev., and Planctomyces guttaeformis (ex Hortobagyi 1965) sp. nov., nom. rev Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34(4) 470–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Starr, M. P., and J. M. Schmidt. 1989 Genus PlanctomycesGimesi 1924 In: J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig and J. G. Holt. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Williams and Wilkins Baltimore, MD 3 1946–1958Google Scholar
  130. Stougaard, P., F. Jorgensen, M. G. Johnsen, and O. C. Hansen. 2002 Microbial diversity in ikaite tufa columns: An alkaline, cold ecological niche in Greenland Environ. Microbiol. 4(8) 487–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Strous, M., J. A. Fuerst, E. H. Kramer, S. Logemann, G. Muyzer, K. T. van de Pas-Schoonen, R. Webb, J. G. Kuenen, and M. S. Jetten. 1999 Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete Nature 400(6743) 446–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tekniepe, B. L., J. M. Schmidt, and M. P. Starr. 1981 Life cycle of a budding and appendaged bacterium belonging to morphotype IV of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group Curr. Microbiol. 5 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tekniepe, B. L., J. M. Schmidt, and M. P. Starr. 1982 Immunoferritin labeling shows de novo synthesis of surface components in buds of a prokaryote beloning to morphotype IV of the Blastocaulis-Planctomyces group Curr. Microbiol. 7 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Thamdrup, B., and T. Dalsgaard. 2002 Production of N2 through anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction in marine sediments Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(3) 1312–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Todorov, J. R., A. Y. Chistoserdov, and J. Y. Aller. 2000 Molecular analysis of microbial communities in mobile deltaic muds of Southeastern Papua New Guinea FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 33(2) 147–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Van Dongen, U., M. S. Jetten, and M. C. van Loosdrecht. 2001 The SHARON-Anammox process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater Water Sci. Technol. 44(1) 153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Vergin, K. L., E. Urbach, J. L. Stein, E. F. DeLong, B. D. Lanoil, and S. J. Giovannoni. 1998 Screening of a fosmid library of marine environmental genomic DNA fragments reveals four clones related to members of the order Planctomycetales Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(8) 3075–3078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wang, J., C. Jenkins, R. I. Webb, and J. A. Fuerst. 2002 Isolation of Gemmata-like and Isosphaera-like planctomycete bacteria from soil and freshwater Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(1) 417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ward, D. M., R. Weller, and M. M. Bateson. 1990 16S rRNA sequences reveal numerous uncultured inhabitants in a natural community Nature 345 63–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ward, N., F. A. Rainey, E. Stackebrandt, and H. Schlesner. 1995 Unraveling the extent of diversity within the order Planctomycetales Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(6) 2270–2275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Ward, N. L., F. A. Rainey, B. P. Hedlund, J. T. Staley, W. Ludwig, and E. Stackebrandt. 2000 Comparative phylogenetic analyses of members of the order Planctomycetales and the division Verrucomicrobia: 23S rRNA gene sequence analysis supports the 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived phylogeny Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 (Part 6) 1965–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ward-Rainey, N. 1996a Genetic diversity in members of the order Planctomycetales Biological Sciences University of Warwick Coventry, UK 344Google Scholar
  143. Ward-Rainey, N., F. A. Rainey, E. M. Wellington, and E. Stackebrandt. 1996b Physical map of the genome of Planctomyces limnophilus, a representative of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete lineage J. Bacteriol. 178(7) 1908–1913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Ward-Rainey, N., F. A. Rainey, and E. Stackebrandt. 1997 The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales J. Bacteriol. 179(20) 6360–6366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Webster, N. S., K. J. Wilson, L. L. Blackall, and R. T. Hill. 2001 Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(1) 434–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Weisburg, W. G., T. P. Hatch, and C. R. Woese. 1986 Eubacterial origin of chlamydiae J. Bacteriol. 167(2) 570–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Wilson, K. H., and R. B. Blitchington. 1996 Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62(7) 2273–2278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Woese, C. R., E. Stackebrandt, T. J. Macke, and G. E. Fox. 1985 A phylogenetic definition of the major eubacterial taxa Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6 143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Woese, C. R. 1987 Bacterial evolution Microbiol. Rev. 51(2) 221–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Woronichin, N. N. 1927 Materiali k agologitscheskoj flore i rastitjelnosti mineralnich istotchnikov gruppie Kaukaskich mineralnich wod Travaux de l’Institut Balnéologique aux Eaux Minerales du Caucase 5 90–121Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi Ward
  • James T. Staley
  • John A. Fuerst
  • Stephen Giovannoni
  • Heinz Schlesner
  • Eiko Stackebrandt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations