The Genera Pediococcus and Tetragenococcus

  • Wilhelm H. Holzapfel
  • Charles M. A. P. Franz
  • Wolfgang Ludwig
  • Werner Back
  • Leon M. T. Dicks


The genera Pediococcus and Tetragenococcus are typical lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in being Gram positive, catalase negative, and oxidase negative. They grow under facultatively aerobic to microaerophilic conditions. They are homofermentative and produce lactic acid but no CO2 from glucose and are not able to reduce nitrate. The uniformly spherical cells are never ovoid or elongated (Günther and White, 1961b), and they differ from all other LAB by forming tetrads via alternate division in two perpendicular directions (Fig. 1). Thus, they never form chains typical of the other genera of coccus-shaped organisms Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Streptococcus, which form chains as a result of division in one plane. The name “Pediococcus” came from the suggestion by Balcke (1884), which was based on the observation that the cells divide in one plane (the Greek noun pedium means a plane surface). The genus Pediococcus (Claussen 1903) is incorrectly cited as Pediococcus(Balcke 1884)...


Lactic Acid Bacterium Glycine Betaine Fermented Sausage Pediococcus Strain Genus Pediococcus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilhelm H. Holzapfel
  • Charles M. A. P. Franz
  • Wolfgang Ludwig
  • Werner Back
  • Leon M. T. Dicks

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