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The Phytopathogenic Spiroplasmas

  • Jacqueline Fletcher
  • Ulrich Melcher
  • Astri Wayadande

Introduction

Spiroplasmas (family Spiroplasmataceae, order Mycoplasmatales) comprise a group of helical prokaryotes whose external morphology, unlike that of the spirochetes, is defined by an internal skeletal framework rather than by an external peptidoglycan-containing cell wall. The loss of a cell wall in mollicutes (spiroplasmas, mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas, acholeplasmas and others) is due to degenerative evolution from their walled precursors (see also The Phytopathogenic Spiroplasma in this Volume, which provides extensive coverage of this taxon). Most of the more than 50 spiroplasma species that have been described are associated with insects and other animals in relationships that range from pathogenic to benign. For example, Spiroplasma melliferum infects honeybees (Whitcomb and Williamson, 1979), other spiroplasmas cause disease in mosquitoes (Humphery-Smith et al., 1991Humphery-Smith et al., 1991Humphery-Smith et al., 1991), and the “sex ratio” spiroplasma kills the male...

Keywords

Sieve Tube Maize Streak Virus Electrical Penetration Graph Periwinkle Plant Plant Pathogenic Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Fletcher
  • Ulrich Melcher
  • Astri Wayadande

There are no affiliations available

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