The Genus Kurthia

  • Erko Stackebrandt
  • Ronald M. Keddie
  • Dorothy Jones


In 1883, H. Kurth published the description of Bacterium zopfii, which he had isolated from the intestinal contents of chickens (Kurth, 1883). Two years later, Trevisan (1885) created the genus Kurthia with K. zopfii as the type species. However, over the ensuing years Kurth’s organism was given a variety of generic names, including Zopfius (Wenner and Rettger, 1919); the valid name Kurthia really came into general use only after the publication of the seventh edition of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Breed et al., 1957). The genus Kurthia contains three species, K. zopfii, K. gibsonii (Keddie and Shaw, 1986), and K. sibirica (Belikova et al., 1986). Additional species are mentioned in the literature but have not been validated, e.g., “Kurthia catenaforma” (Kato et al., 1972), “Kurthia bessonii” (Pancoast et al., 1979) or “Kurthia variabilis” (Severi, 1946).

Reference strains are K. zopfiiDSM...


Meat Product Poultry House Pimelic Acid Coryneform Bacterium Exponential Phase Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Ash, C., J. A. E. Farrow, S. Wallbanks, and M. D. Collins. 1991 Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus as revealed by comparative analysis of small-subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13 202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ash, C., F. G. Priest, and M. D. Collins. 1993 Molecular identification of rRNA group 3 bacilli (Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Collins) using a PCR probe test Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64 253–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, J. H., and D. G. Smith. 1972 The bacteria in an Antarctic peat J. Appl. Bacteriol. 35 589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belikova, V. L., N. V. Cherevach, L. M. Baryshnikova, and L. V. Kalakutskii. 1980 Morphologic, physiologic and biochemical characteristics of Kurthia zopfii Microbiology 49 51–55Google Scholar
  5. Belikova, V. L., N. V. Cherevach, and L. V. Kalakutskii. 1986 A new species of bacteria of the genus Kurthia, Kurthia sibirica sp. nov Mikrobiologiya 55 831–835Google Scholar
  6. Bernard, K. A., M. Bellefeuille, and E. P. Ewan. 1991 Cellular fatty acid composition as an adjunct to the identification of asporogenous, aerobic Gram-positive rods J. Clin. Microbiol. 29 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berndt, H., and W. Liese. 1973 Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Bakterien in wasserberieselten Buchenholzstammen Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkde. Infektionskrankh. Hyg., Abt. 2 128 578–594Google Scholar
  8. Boyce, R., and A. E. Evans. 1893 The action of gravity upon Bacterium zopfii Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 54 300–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breed, R. S., E. G. D. Murray, and N. R. Smith (Eds.). 1957 Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 7th ed Williams and Wilkins Baltimore MDGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherevach, L. M., T. P. Tourova, and V. L. Belikova. 1983 DNA-DNA homology studies among strains of Kurthia zopfii FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19 243–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clausen, V., J. G. Jones, and E. Stackebrandt. 1985 16S ribosomal RNA analysis of Filibacter limicola indicates a close relationship to the genus Bacillus J. Gen. Microbiol. 131 2659–2663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins, M. D., M. Goodfellow, and D. E. Minnikin. 1979 Isoprenoid quinones in the classification of coryneform and related bacteria J. Gen. Microbiol. 110 127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins-Thompson, D. L., P. J. Slade, and M. Goethals. 1991 Use of low molecular mass RNA profiles to identify lactic acid bacteria and related organisms associated with foods Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 14 135–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Aubert, S., C. Cantoni, and C. Calcinardi. 1975 I corinebatteri nelle carni confezionate sottovuoto Archivo Veterinario Italiano 26 65–70Google Scholar
  15. Davidson, C. M., P. Mobbs, and J. M. Stubbs. 1968 Some morphological and physiological properties of Microbacterium thermosphactum J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31 551–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dowdell, M. J., and R. G. Board. 1971 The microbial associations in British fresh sausages J. Appl. Bacteriol. 34 317–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edmond, E., I. Fliss, and S. Pandian. 1993 A ribosomal DNA fragment of Listeria monocytogenes and its use a a genus-specific probe in an aquous-pase hybridization assay Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 2690–2697Google Scholar
  18. Elston, H. R. 1961 Kurthia bessonii isolated from clinical material J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 81 245–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Faoagali, J. L. 1974 Kurthia, an unusual isolate Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 62 604–606Google Scholar
  20. Farrow, J. A. E., C. Ash, S. Wallbanks, and M. D. Collins. 1992 Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Planococcus, Marinicoccus and Sporosarcina and their relationships to members of the genus Bacillus FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 93 167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farrow, J. A. E., S. Wallbanks, and M. D. Collins. 1994 Phylogenetic interrelationships of round-spore-forming bacilli containing cell walls based on lysine and the non-spore-forming genera Caryophanon, Exuguobacterium, Kurthia and Planococcus Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44 74–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Felsenstein, J. 1993 PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package), Version 3.5.1 Department of Genetics, University of Washington Seattle WAGoogle Scholar
  23. Flügge, C. 1896 Die Microorganismen F. C. W. Vogel Leipzig Germany 2 277–278Google Scholar
  24. Gardner, G. A., and A. W. Carson. 1967a Relationship between carbon dioxide production and growth of pure strains of bacteria on porcine muscle J. Appl. Bacteriol. 30 500–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gardner, G. A., A. W. Carson, and J. Patton. 1967b Bacteriology of prepacked pork with reference to the gas composition within the pack J. Appl. Bacteriol. 30 321–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gardner, G. A. 1969 Physiological and morphological characteristics of Kurthia zopfii isolated from meat products J. Appl. Bacteriol. 32 371–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goh, S. H., R. R. Facklam, M. Chan, J. E. Hill, G. J. Tyrrell, E. C. M. Burns, D. Chan, C. He, T. Rahim, C. Shaw, and S. M. Hemmingsen. 2000 Identification of Enterococcus species and phenotypically similar Lactococcus and Vagococcus species by reverse checkerboarxd hybridization to chaperonin 60 gene sequences J. Clin. Microbiol. 38 3953–3959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodfellow, M., M. D. Collins, and D. E. Minnikin. 1980 Fatty acid and polar lipid composition in the classification of Kurthia J. Appl. Bacteriol. 48 269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Günther, C. 1896 Bakteriologische Untersuchungen in einem Falle von Fleischvergiftung Archiv Hyg. 28 153–158Google Scholar
  30. Heyndrickx, M., L. Lebbe, K. Kersters, P. De Vos, G. Forsyth, and N. Logan. 1998 Virgibacillus: a new genus to accommodate Bacillus pantothenticus (Proom and Knight 1950): Emended description of Virgibacillus pantothenticus Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48 99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holzapfel, W. H. 1992 Culture media for non-sporulating Gram-positive food spoilage bacteria Int. J. Food Microbiol. 17 113–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ingram, M. 1952 Internal bacterial taints (“bone taint” or “souring”) of cured pork legs J. Hyg. 50 165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jacobsen, H. C. 1907 Ueber einen richtenden Einfluss beim Wachstum gewisser Bakterien in GelatineGelatin Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkde. Infektionskrankh. Hyg., Abt. 2 17 53–64Google Scholar
  34. Janota-Bassalik, L. 1963 Psychrophiles in low-moor peat Acta Microbiol. Polonica 12 25–40Google Scholar
  35. Jarumilinta, R., M. Miranda, and V. M. Villarejos. 1976 A bacteriological study of the intestinal mucosa and luminal fluid of adults with acute diarrhoea Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 70 165–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jones, D. 1975 A numerical taxonomic study of coryneform and related bacteria J. Gen. Microbiol. 87 52–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, D., P. A. Pell, and P. H. A. Sneath. 1984 Maintenance of bacteria on glass beads at 60°C to 76°C In: B. E. Kirsop and J. J. S. Snell (Eds.) Maintenance of Microorganisms: A Manual of Laboratory Methods Academic Press London UK 35–40Google Scholar
  38. Kato, R. M., H. Fukushima, and I. Chibata. 1972 Mechanism of proline production by Kurthia catenaforma Appl Microbiol. 23 699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Keddie, R. M. 1949 A Study of Bacterium zopfii Kurth [Dissertation] Edinburgh School of Agriculture Edinburgh UKGoogle Scholar
  40. Keddie, R. M., and M. Rogosa. 1974 Kurthia In: R. E. Buchanan, and N. E. Gibbons (Eds.) Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed Williams and Wilkins Baltimore MD 631–632Google Scholar
  41. Keddie, R. M. 1981 The Genus Kurthia In: M. P. Starr, H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows, and H. G. Schlegel (Eds.) The Prokaryotes Springer-Verlag Berlin Germany 1 1888–1893Google Scholar
  42. Keddie, R. M., and S. Shaw. 1986 Genus Kurthia In: P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe, and J. G. Holt (Eds.) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Williams and Wilkins Baltimore MD 2 1255–1258Google Scholar
  43. Keddie, R. M., and D. Jones. 1992 The genus Brochothrix (formerly Microbacterium thermosphactum, McLean and Sulzbacher) In: A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder, and K.-H. Schleifer (Eds.) The Prokaryotes, 2nd ed Springer-Verlag Berlin Germany 11654–11662Google Scholar
  44. Kiyasu, T., Y. Nagahashi, and T. Hoshino. 2001 Cloning and characterization of biotin biosynthetic genes of Kurthia sp Gene 265 103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kufferath, H. 1911 Note sur les tropismes du Bacterium zopfii “Kurth” Ann. Inst. Pasteur 25 601–617Google Scholar
  46. Kurth, H. 1883 Ueber Bacterium zopfii, eine neue Bacterienart Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 23 97–100Google Scholar
  47. Liebschers, S. 1965 Contamination of permanent cell strains by a species of the genus Kurthia J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 59 207–211Google Scholar
  48. Ludwig, W., E. Seewaldt, K.-H. Schleifer, and E. Stackebrandt. 1981 The phylogenetic status of Kurthia zopfii FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 10 193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Migula, W. 1900 System der Bacterien Gustav Fischer Velag, Jena Germany 2 815–816Google Scholar
  50. Nazina, T. N., T. P. Tourova, A. B. Poltaraus, E. V. Novikova, A. A. Grigoriyan, A. E. Ivanova, V. V. Petrunyaka, G. A. Osipov, S. S. Belyaev, and M. V. Ivanov. 2001 Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermooleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 433–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Orla Jensen, S. 1921 Dairy Bacteriology, 2nd English ed J. & A. Churchill Churchill, London UK 51Google Scholar
  52. Owens, J. D., and R. M. Keddie. 1969 The nitrogen nutrition of soil and herbage coryneform bacteria J. Appl. Bacteriol. 32 338–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pancoast, S. J., P. D. Ellner, J. A. Jahre, and H. C. Neu. 1979 Endocarditis due to Kurthia bessonii Ann. Intern. Med. 90 936–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Patel, I. B., and R. H. Vaughn. 1973 Cellulolytic bacteria associated with sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives Appl. Microbiol. 25 62–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Proctor, B. E. 1935 The microbiology of the upper air II J. Bacteriol. 31 363–375Google Scholar
  56. Rheims, H., A. Frühling, P. Schumann, M. Rohde, and E. Stackebrandt. 1999 Description of Bacillus silvestris sp. nov., a new member of the genus Bacillus, containing lysine in its cell wall Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 795–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rocourt, J., H. W. Ackermann, and J. Brault. 1983 Isolement et morphologie de bactériophages de Kurthia zopfii Ann. Virol. (Inst. Pasteur) 134E 557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Roger, A. J., S. G. Svard, J. Tovar, C. G. Clark, M. W. Smith, F. D. Gillin, and M. L. Sogin. 1998 A mitochondrial-like chaperonin 60 gene in giardia lamblia: evidence that diplomonads once harboured an endosymbiont related to the progenitor of mitochondria Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saha, N., and D. N. Raychaudhuri. 1973 A note of the bacterial flora in the gut of the crab Seylla serrata (Forskal) (Crustacea: Decapoda), Science and Culture 39 361–363Google Scholar
  60. Schleifer, K.-H., and O. Kandler. 1972 Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications Bacteriol. Rev. 36 407–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Sergent, E. 1906 Des tropismes du Bacterium zopfii Kurth, Première note Ann. Inst. Pasteur 20 1005–1017Google Scholar
  62. Sergent, E. 1907 Des tropismes du Bacterium zopfii Kurth, Deuxième note Ann. Inst. Pasteur 21 842–856Google Scholar
  63. Severi, R. 1946 L’azione patogena delle Kurthie e la loro sistematica. Una nuova specie: “Kurthia variabilis” Giornale de Batteriologia e Immunologia 24 107–114Google Scholar
  64. Shaw, S., and R. M. Keddie. 1983a A numerical taxonomic study of the genus Kurthia with a revised description of Kurthia zopfii and a description of Kurthia gibsonii sp. nov Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4 253–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shaw, S., and R. M. Keddie. 1983b The vitamin requirements of Kurthia zopfii and Kurthia gibsonii Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4 439–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shaw, S., and R. M. Keddie. 1984 The genus Kurthia: Cell wall composition and DNA base content Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5 220–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shida, O., H. Takagi, K. Kadowaki, and K. Komagata. 1996 Proposal for wo new genera, Brevibacillus gen. nov. and Aneurinibacillus gen. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 939–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Skerman, V. B. D., V. McGowan, and P. H. A. Sneath. 1980 Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30 225–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sneath, P. H. A., and D. Jones. 1976 Brochothrix, a new genus tentatively placed in the family Lactobacillaceae Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26 102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stackebrandt, E., W. Ludwig, M. Weizenegger, S. Dorn, G. E. Fox, C. R. Woese, and K.-H. Schleifer. 1987 Comparative 16S rRNA oligonucleotide analysis and murein types of round-sporeforming bacilli and non-sporeforming relatives J. Gen. Microbiol. 133 2523–2529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Stackebrandt, E., and J. Swiderski. 2002 From phylogeny to systematics: the dissection of the genus Bacillus In: R. Berkeley, M. Heyndrickx, N. Logan and P. De Vos (Eds)8–22 Blackwell Publishing Oxford UKGoogle Scholar
  72. Starr, M. P., H. Stolp, H. G. Trüper, A. Balows, and H. G. Schlegel (Eds.). 1981 The Prokaryotes Springer-Verlag Berlin GermanyGoogle Scholar
  73. Strivastava, S. K., V. B. Singh, and N. P. Singh. 1972 Bacterial flora of poultry environment Indian J. Microbiol. 12 7–9Google Scholar
  74. Trevisan, V. 1885 Caretteri di alcuni nuovi generi di Batteriacee Atti della Accademia Fisio-Medico-Statistica in Milano, Series 4 3 92–107Google Scholar
  75. Wenner, J. J., and L. F. Rettger. 1919 A systematic study of the Proteus group of bacteria J. Bacteriol. 4 331–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Wisotzkey, J. D., P. Jurtshuk Jr., G. E. Fox, G. Deinhard, and K. Poralla. 1992 Comparative sequence analysis on the 16S rRNAS of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cycloheptanicus: proposal for a new genus Alicyclobacillus gen. nov Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42 263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wunder, J. A., W. W. Briner, and G. P. Calkins. 1976 Identification of the cultivable bacteria in dental plaque from the Beagle dog J. Dental Res. 55 1097–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yang, M., Y. Sun, P. Ge, Q. Dong, and Z. Ma. 1985 A case of infant septicemia caused by Kurthia zopfii Chinese J. Microbiol. Immunol. 5 485Google Scholar
  79. Zikes, H. 1903 Die Wachstumserscheinungen von Bacterium zopfii auf Peptongelatinegelatin Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkde. Infektionskrankh. Hyg., Abt. 2 11 59–61Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erko Stackebrandt
  • Ronald M. Keddie
  • Dorothy Jones

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations