Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology

2004 Edition
| Editors: Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember

Psychoanalysis and Anthropology

  • Waud H. Kracke
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-29905-X_8

Anthropology and psychoanalysis have much in common. The ability to listen, for example, is crucial to both disciplines. The approach psychoanalysis takes to mental illness is to listen to the patient and try to understand the structure of his symptoms and the origin of these symptoms in repressed or disavowed desires. The analyst supports the patient’s quest to understand the reason these desires were disavowed, in conflicts between the desires and the person’s values in the context of a set of assumptions about life that grew up as a response to childhood experiences. Anthropology is likewise based on listening—listening to a person (“informant” or “collaborator”) and trying to understand the structure of this person’s system of symbols, including the value system and the root assumptions about reality. Despite obvious differences—the psychoanalyst is responding to an individual patient who came to him for alleviation of personal suffering; the anthropologist is trying to understand...


Mental Illness Psychoanalytic Theory Culture Shock Emotional Conflict Psychoanalytic Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Antokoletz, J. (1987). A psychoanalytic view of acculturation: Analyzing “I am Joaquin.” Texas Psychologist, 39(2), 3–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Apollon, W. (1996). Postcolonialism and psychoanalysis: The example of Haiti. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 1(1), 43–51.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apollon, W. (1998). L’espace vaudou et la métaphore phallique. L’universel, perspectives psychanalytiques (pp. 181–198). Québec, Canada: GIFRIC, Collection le savoir analytique.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Apollon, W. (1999). Psychoses: l’offre de l’analyste. Québec, Canada: GIFRIC, Collection le savoir analytique.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Apollon, W., Bergeron, D., & Cantin, L. (1990). Traiter la psychose. Québec, Canada: GIFRIC.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Apollon, W., Bergeron, D., & Cantin, L. (2000). The treatment of psychosis. In K. Malone & S. Friedlander, (Eds.) The subject of Lacan. Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bateson, M. C. (1968). ‘Insight in a bicultural context. Philippine Studies, 16, 267–301.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bettelheim, B. (1975). The uses of enchantment. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bilu, Y. (1979). Sigmund Freud and Rabbi Yehudah: On a Jewish mystical tradition of ‘psychoanalytic’ dream interpretation. Journal of Psychological Anthropology, 2, 443–463.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bilu, Y. (1985). The Taming of the deviants and beyond: An analysis of Dybbuk possession and exorcism in Judaism. The Psychoanalytic Study of Society, 11, 1–32.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyer, L. B. (1964). Folk psychiatry of the Apaches of the Mescalero Indian reservation. In A. Kiev (Ed). Magic, Faith and Healing. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyer, L. B. (1983). The regressed patient. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyer, L. B. & R. Boyer (1985). Crisis and continuity in the personality of an Apache shaman. Psychoanalytic Study of Society 11 (63–104). Hillside, N. J.: The Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boyer, L., & Simon A. Grolnick (Eds.) The Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birman, J. (1988). Percursos na história da psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Livraria Taurus Editora.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Briggs, J. (1970). Never in anger. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Casagrande, J. B. (Ed.). (1959). In the company of man. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caudill, W. (1959). Observations on the cultural context of Japanese psychiatry. In M. K. Opler (Ed.), Culture and mental health (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cerqueira, G. (Ed.). (1982). Crise na psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Edições Graal.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Conklin, B. (2001). Consuming grief: Compassionate cannibalism in an Amazonian society. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crapanzano, V. (1975). Saints, Jnun and dreams. Psychiatry, 38, 145–159.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crapanzano, V. (1980). Tuhami: Portrait of a Moroccan. Chicago IL: Univerisity of Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crapanzano, V. (1981). Text, transference and indexicality. Ethos, 9, 122–148. [Reprinted in Hermes’dilemma and Hamlet’s desire: On the epistemology of intepretation (pp. 115—135). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crapanzano, V. (1994). Rethinking psychological anthropology: A critical view. In M. Suárez-Orozco & George and Louise Spindler (Eds.), The making of psychological antoropology (pp. 223–243). New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    DaMatta, R. (1978, Maio). O ofìcio de etnologo, ou como ter anthropological blues. Boletim do Museu Nacional: Antropologia (27).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Danneberg, E. (1995). Psychoanalysis against the grain: Argentina, Chile, Nicaragua, Cuba. In Kutter, P. (1995). Psychoanalysis International: Vol 2. America, Asia, Australia, further European Countries (pp. 241–256). Stuttgart, Germany: Frommann-Holzborg.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Desai, P., & Coelho, G. (1980). Indian immigrants in America: Some cultural aspects of psychological adaptation. In P. Saran & E. Eames (Eds.) The new ethnics: Asian Indians in the United States. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Devereux, G. (1956). Normal and abnormal: The key problem of psychiatric anthropology. In J. B. C. & T. Gladwin (Eds.) Some uses of anthropology: Theoretical and applied (pp. 23–48). Washington, DC: Anthropological Society of Washington. [Reprinted in Basic problems of ethno-psychiatry Chapter 1, pp. 3–71, by G. Devereux (B. Gulati & G. Devereux, Trans.), 1980. Chicago IL:University of Chicago Press.]Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Doi, T. (1973). The anatomy of dependence. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International Press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Erikson, E. (1969). Ghandi’s truth. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Erikson, E. (1975). In search of Gandhi. In Life history and the historical moment (pp. 111–189). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Etkind, A. (1995). Russia (until 1989). In Kutter, P. (1995). Psychoanalysis International: Vol 2. America, Asia, Australia, further European countries (pp. 333–344). Stuttgart, Germany: Frommann-Holzborg.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ewing, K. (1987). Clinical psychoanalysis as an ethnographic tool. Ethos, 15, 16–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ewing, K. (1992). Is psychoanalysis relevant for anthropology? In T. Schwartz, G. White, & C. Lutz (Eds.). New directions in psychological anthropology (pp. 251–268). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Foulks, E. (1972). The Arctic hysterias (Anthropological Studies, No. 10). Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Freeman, D. M. A. Foulks, E. & Freeman, P. A. (1976). Ghost sickness and superego development in the Apache Indian male. Psychoanalytic Study of Society, 7, 123–171.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Freeman, D. (1967). Shaman and incubus. Psychoanalytic Study of Society, 4, 315–343. [Werner Muensterberger and Sidney Axelrad. New York:IUP]Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Freire Costa, J. (1986). Violência e psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Edições Graal.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Freire Costa, J. (1989). Psicanálise e contexto cultural. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Editora Campus.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Freire Costa, J. (1994). Pragmática e processo psicanalìtico. In J. Freire Costa (Ed.), Redescrições da psicanálise, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Relume/Dumará.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Freud, S. (1955) The intepretation of dreams (Standard ed., 4 & 5). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1900.)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Freud, S. (1957) Mourning and melancholia (Standard ed., 14 pp. 243–258). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1917.)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Freud, S. (1961). A 17th century demonological neurosis (Standard ed., 19 pp. 72–105). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1923.)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garza-Guerrero, A. C. (1974). Culture shock: Its mourning and the vicissitudes of identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 22, 408–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guthrie, G. & D. Szanton. (1976). Folk diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia: Bargaining with the Spirits. In W. Lebra (Ed.) Culture Bound Syndromes, Ethnopsychiatry, and alternative Therapies. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hay, T. (1971). The Windigo psychosis: Psychodynamic, cultural and social factors in aberrant behavior. American Anthropologist, 73, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Herdt, G. (1981). Guardians of the Flute. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Herdt, G. (1982). Fetish and fantasy in Sambia initiation. In G. Herdt (Ed.) Rituals of Manhood. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 44–98.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Herdt, G. and R. J. Stoller. (1987). The effect of supervision on the practice of ethnography. In H. P. Duerr (Ed.) Die wilde Seele zur Ethnopsychanalyse von Georges Devereux. Frankfurt, Germany: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Herdt, G. & R. J. Stoller. (1990). Intimate Communications. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hollan, D. (1994a). Suffering and the work of culture: A case of magical poisoning in Toraja. American Ethnologist, 20.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hollan, D. (1994b). Contentment and suffering: Culture and experience in Toraja. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kakar, S. (1978). The inner world: A psychoanalytic study of childhood and society in Delhi. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kakar, S. (1979). A case of depression. Samiksa, 33(3), 61–71.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kakar, S. (1980). Observations on the “Oedipal alliance” in a patient with a narcissistic personality disorder. Samiksa, 34(2), 47–53.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kakar, S. (1982). Shamans, mystics and doctors. Boston, MA: Beacon.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kakar, S. (1985). Psychoanalysis and non-Western cultures. International Review of Psychoanalysis, 12, 441–448.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kakar, S. (1989). Intimate relations: Exploring Indian sexuality, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kakar, S. (1990). Stories from Indian psychoanalysis: Context and text. In J. Stigler, R. Shweder, & G. Herdt (Eds), Cultural psychology: Essays on comparative human development (pp. 427–445). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kiev, A. (1964). Magic, faith and healing. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kracke,W. (1980). Amazonian interviews: Dreams of a bereaved father. Annual of Psychoanalysis, 8, 249–267.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kracke, W. (1981). Kagwahiv mourning: Dreams of a bereaved father. Ethos, 9, 258–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kracke, W. (1987). Encounter with other cultures: Psychological and epistemological aspects. Ethos, 15(1), 58–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kracke, W. (1990). Don’t let the Piranha bite your liver: A combined anthropological and psychoanalytic approach to Kagwahiv (Tupi) food taboos. Psychoanalytic Study of Society, 15, 205–246.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kracke, W. (1991). Languages of dreaming: Anthropological approaches to the study of dreaming in other cultures. In J. Gackenbach & A. Sheikh (Eds.), Dream images: A call to mental arms (pp. 203–224). Farmingdale, NY: Baywood Press.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kracke, W. (1999). A language of dreaming: Dreams of an Amazonian insomniac. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 80(2), 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kracke, W. (2002). Culture shock. In The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kumagai, H. & Kumagai, A. (1986). The hidden ‘I’ in Amae. Ethos, 14, 305–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kutter, P. (1995). Psychoanalysis International: Vol. 2. America, Asia, Australia, further European countries. Stuttgart, Germany: Frommann-Holzborg.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lacan, J. (1953). The individual myth of the neurotic or poetry and truth in the neurosis (Martha Evans, Trans.) Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 48. First published in French in 1953, Centre de Documentation Universitaire)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lambo, T. A. (1964). Patterns of psychiatric care in developing African countries. In Ari Kiev (Ed.), Magic, faith and healing (pp. 443–453). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Levak, M. (1979). Motherhood by death among the Bororo Indians of Brazil. Omega, 10, 323–33.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Levcovitz, S. (1998). Kandire: O paraiso terreal. Santa Teresa, RJ: Editora Espaço e Tempo Ltda, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Te Corá Editora.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1963). The effectiveness of symbols. In Symbolic anthropology (Chap. 10) New York: Basic Books. (First published in French in 1949.)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mezan, R. (1988). Problemas de uma história da psicanálise. In Birman, J. (Ed.), Percursos na historia da psicanálise (pp. 15–41). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Livraria Taurus Editora.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nandy, A. (1995). The savage Freud: The first nonwestern psychoanalyst and the politics of secret selves in colonial India. In The savage Freud and other essays on possible and retrievable selves (pp. 81–144). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1981). Medusa’s hair: An essay on personal symbols and religious experience. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1990). The work of culture: Symbolic transformation in psychoanalysis and anthropology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Okonogi, K. (1978–79) The Ajase complex of the Japanese. Japan Echo, 5 (4, pt.1), 88–105; 6 (1, pt. 2), 104–118.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Opler, M. K. (1959). Culture and mental health. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parsons, A. (1969). Belief, magic and anomie. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Paul, R. (1990). Recruitment to monasticism among the Sherpas. In D. K. Jordan & M. J. Swartz (Eds.), Personality and the cultural construction of society (pp. 254–274). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pollock, G. (1972). On mourning and anniversaries: The relationship of culturally constituted defensive systems to intrapsychic adaptive process. Israel Annals of Psychiatry, 10, 9–40.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ramanujam, B. K. (1986). Social change and personal crisis: A view from an Indian practice. In The cultural transition (pp. 65–86). M. White & S. Pollak (Eds.), London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ramanujam, B. K. (1992). Implications of some psychoanalytic concepts in the Indian context. In D. Spain (Ed.) Psychoanalytic anthropology after Freud. New York: Psyche Press, pp. 121–135.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reid, J. (1979). A time to live, a Time to grieve: Mourning among the Yolngu of Australia. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 3, 319–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ribeiro, D. (1980). Uirá sai ao encontro de Maìra: as experincias de um ìndio que saiu à procura de deus. In Uirá sai à procura de deus: ensaios de etnologia e indigenismo (pp. 13–29). Rio de Janeiro: Editora Paz e Terra. (Original work published in Anhembi, 26(76), 1957.)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rivers, W. H. R. (1917–1918). Dreams and primitive culture. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rivers, W. H. R. (1923). Conflict and dream. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sagawa, R. Y. (1985). A psicanálise pioneira e os pioneiros da psicanálise. In S. Figueira (Ed.), Cultura da psicanálise (pp. 15–34). São Paulo, Brazil: Editora Casa do Psicólogo.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sagawa, R. Y. (1994). A história da sociedade Brasileira de psicanálise de São Paulo. In Album de famìlia. São Paulo, Brazil: Editora Casa do Psicólogo.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sapir, E. (1963a). The emergence of the concept of personality in a study of cultures. In D. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Selected writings of Edward Sapir (pp. 590–597). Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1934.)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sapir, E. (1963b) Why cultural anthropology needs the psychiatrist. In D. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Selected writings of Edward Sapir (pp. 569–577). Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1938.)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sebe Bom Meihy (1991). Canto de morte Kaiowá: História oral de vida. São Paulo, Brazil: Edições Loyola.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shalvey, T. (1979). Claude Lévi-Strauss: Social psychotherapy and the collective unconscious. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Slobodin, R. (1978). W.H.R.Rivers: Pioneer anthropologist, psychiatrist of The Ghost Road.: Gloustershire, U.K. Sutton.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Spiro, M. (1950). A psychotic personality in the South Seas. Psychiatry, 13, 189–204.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Spiro, M. (1959). Cultural heritage, personal tensions and mental illness in a South Sea culture. In: M. K. Opler (Ed.), Culture and mental health (pp. 141–171). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Spiro, M. (1961). An overview and a suggested reorientation. In F. L. K. Hsu (Ed.) Psychological anthropology. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Spiro, M. (1965). Religious systems as culturally constituted defense mechanisms. In Context and meaning in cultural anthropology: Essays in honor of A.I. Hallowell (pp. 100–113). Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Spiro, M. (2003). The anthropological import of blocked access to dream associations. In J. Mageo (Ed.) Dreaming and the self: New perspectives on subjectivity, identity and emotion. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Talayesva, D., & Simmons O. (1942). Sun Chief: The autobiography of a Hopi Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ticho, G. (1971). Cultural aspects of transference and counter-transference (Discussion by Charles Chediak (Cuban analyst) and Tetsuya Iwasaki). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 35(5), 303–334.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Toffelmeier, G., & K. Luomala (1936). Dreams and dream interpretation of the Diegueño Indians of Southern California. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 5, 195–225.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Turner, V. (1967a). Muchona the hornet. In The forest of symbols (chap. 6, pp. 131–150). Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press. (Original work published in In the company of man by J. B. Casagrande (Ed.), 1959. New York: Harper).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Turner, V. (1961). Ndembu divination: Its symbolism and techniques. Lusaka, Zambia: Rhodes-Livingston Institute. [Reprinted in Revelation and divination in Ndembu ritual (pt. 2), 1972, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.]Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Turner, Victor (1967b). The forest of symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Villareal, I. (1997). Ad hoc commission of inquiry for the sociedade psicanalítica de Rio de Janeiro (Report). (Distributed to members by the IPA Trust, “Broomhills,” Woodside Lane, London.) London: International Psychoanalytic Association.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vianna, H. B. (1994). Não conte a ninguem. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Imago Editora Ltda.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vianna, H. B. (1997). La psychanalise face à la dictature et à la torture: N’en parlez à personne.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Villela, L. J. (1998). “Cale-se,” the Chalice of Silence: The return of the repressed in Brazil. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 3(2), 167–173.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vitebsky, P. (1993). Dialogues with the dead: The discussion of mortality among the Sora of Eastern India. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wallace, A. (1958) Dreams and wishes of the soul: A type of psychoanalytic theory among the seventeenth century Iroquois. American Anthropologist, 60, 234–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wallace, A. (1959). The institutionalization of cathartic and control-strategies in Iroquois religious psychotherapy. In M. K. Opler (Ed.), Culture and mental health (pp. 63–96), New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waud H. Kracke

There are no affiliations available