Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology

2004 Edition
| Editors: Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember


  • Michelle Lampl
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-29905-X_66

Alternative Names

France, French Republic, Republique Française.

Location and Linguistic Affiliation

At slightly less than twice the size of the state of Colorado, France is the largest Western European nation. The French boundaries cover approximately 547,000 km2 in Europe and its overseas administrative divisions add approximately another 600 km2. With about 3,400 km of coastline on its western border, France is a boundary of Western Europe, from the Bay of Biscay in the Southwest to the English Channel in the Northwest. France is located between the present-day countries of Belgium and Spain, it is Southeast of the United Kingdom, and borders the Mediterranean Sea on the Southeast, situated between the borders of Italy and Spain.

French is the national language, with a rapid decline in numerous local dialects and languages (e.g., Provençal, Breton, Languedoc, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish).

Overview of the Culture

With a population estimated at 59,765,983 in July 2002...


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Mandatory Retirement Homeopathic Remedy French Child Homeopathic Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Allain, J. (1986). Anatomie, physiologie et pathologie du Berrichon vu par lui-meme. (pp. 17–22, pp. 30–35).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bancarel, Y., Blanc, M. P., Charrin, G., Chastan, E., Coldefy, J. F., Cottes, L. et al. (1988). Study of drug consumption in a working environment in France. Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, 2, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benzecri, J.-P., Maiti, D.-D., Belon, P., & Questel, R. (1991). Comparaison entre quatre méthodes de sevrage après une thérapeutique anxiolytique. Les Cahiers de l’Analyse des Données, 16(4), 389–402.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bourdieu, P. (1990a). The logic of practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bourdieu, P. (1990b). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bourdieu, P. (1999). A critical reader (R. Shusterman, Ed.). London, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brockliss, L. S. (1987). Taking the waters in early modern France: Some thoughts on a commercial racket. Soc Soc Hist Med Bull (Lond), 40, 74–76.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cals, M. J., Bories, P. N., Blonde-Cynober, F., Coudray-Lucas, C., Desveaus, N., Devanlay, M., et al. (1996). Reference intervals and biological profile in a group of healthy elderly population in the Paris region. Annales de Biologie Clinique (Paris), 4, 307–315.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chapuy, M. C., Preziosi, P., Maamer, M., Arnaud, S., Gala, P., Hercberg, S. et al. (1997). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis International, 7, 439–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chaufferin, G. (2000). Improving the evaluation of homeopathy: Economic considerations and impact on health. British Homeopathic Journal, 89(Suppl. 1), S27–S30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Colin, P. (2000). An epidemiological study of a homeopathic practice. British Homeopathic Journal, 89, 116–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delvaux, M., Fontaine, P., Bartsch, P., & Fontaine, O. (1998). Tetany, spasmophilia, hyperventilation syndrome: Theoretical and therapeutic synthesis. Revue Medicale de Liege, 53, 610–618.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Durlach, J., Bac, P., Durlach, V., Bara, M., Guiet-Bara, A. (1997). Neurotic, neuromuscular and autonomic nervous form of magnesium imbalance. Magnesium Research, 10, 169–195.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fabry, R., Pochon, P., Trolese, J. F., & Duchêne-Marullaz, P. (1985). Variations du périmètre de marche et des index de pression avant et après épreuves de march mesurés à un an d’intervalle chez 140 artériopathes traités á Royat. Cahiers d’artriologie de Royat, 12, 78–82.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferley, J. P., Zmirou, D., D’Adhemar, D., Balducci, F. (1989). A controlled evaluation of a homeopathic preparation in the treatment of influenza-like syndromes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 27, 329–335.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hahnemann, S. (1991). Organon of Medicine (J. Künzli, A. Naudé & P. Pendleton, Trans.) London: Victor Gollancz.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Horvilleur, A. G. (1981). Guide Familial de l’Homéopathie. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kleijnen, J., Knipschild, P., & Riet, G. (1989). Clinical trials of homeopathy. British Medical Journal, 302, 316–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lafont, O. (2002). Medicines for towns and medicines for countrysides. Rev Hist Pharm (Paris), 50, 211–220.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laroche, M., & Masieres, B. (1998). Does the French general practitioner correctly investigate and treat osteoporosis? Clinical Rheumatology, 17, 139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maquet, D., Croisier, J. L., Crielaard, J. M. (2000). Fibromyalgia in the year 2000. Revue Medicale de Liege, 55, 991–997.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perdue, L. (1992). The French paradox and beyond. Sonoma, CA: Renaissance.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poitevin, B. (1987). Le devenir de l’homéopathie. Paris: DOIN Ed.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reilly, D. T., Taylor, M. A., McSharry, C., & Aitchison, T. (1986). Is homeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homeopathic potency, with Pollens in hayfever as a model. The Lancet, 18, 881–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Renaud, S. C., Gueguen, R., Schenker, J., & d’Houtaud, A. (1998). Alcohol and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Epidemiology, 9, 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saint-Clair, M. (1993). Vins medicinaux et elixirs de santé. Colmar: S.A.E.P.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schilliger, P., & Bardelay, G. (1990). La cure thermale. Paris: Editions Frison-Roche.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tilly, B., Guilhot, J., Salanave, B., Fender, P., & Allemand, H. (2002). Management of severe hypertension in France in 1999 and 2000: Intermediate results of a health insurance intervention program. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux, 95, 687–694.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vannier, L. (1992). Typology in homeopathy (Marianne Harling, Trans.). Beaconsfield, U.K.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Warolin, C. (2002). Secret remedies in France until abolition in 1926. Rev Hist Pharm (Paris), 50, 229–238.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weisz, G. (2001). Spas, mineral waters, and hydrological science in twentieth-century France. Isis, 92, 451–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Lampl

There are no affiliations available