Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology

2004 Edition
| Editors: Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember

Burmese

  • Monique Skidmore
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-29905-X_61

Alternative Names

In 1989, Burma was renamed the “Union of Myanmar” by the newly constituted State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The “Burmese” were renamed the “Myanmarese” or “Myanmars”, and the Burmese language was similarly changed to the Myanmarese language. Minority groups in Burma were renamed “National Races,” with “Myanmars” used to designate Burmese citizens of all ethnicities residing within Burma. The United Nations recognized the name change but pro-democracy groups use the older terms, especially “Burma”, “Burmans”, and “Burmese” as a way of protesting at the undemocratic nature of the name changes.

From 1885 until 1937, Burma was designated a province of India as part of the British Raj, and literature of the period regarding Burma is found in Indian manuscripts and journals.

Several armed groups have claimed independence from the military government and insurgent-held areas often publish literature referring to their territory as an independent entity. The...

Keywords

Domestic Violence Maternal Mortality Central Intelligence Agency Incomplete Abortion Monastic Role 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Ba Thike, K. (1997). Abortion: A public health problem in Myanmar. Reproductive Health Matters, 9, 94–100.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Central Intelligence Agency (2002). CIA World Factbook: Burma. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency Government Publications.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hail, J. (1995). Burmese attack could doom independence struggle. Bangkok, Thailand: UPI.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Henderson, J. W., Heimann, J. M., Martindale, K. W., Shinn, R. S., Weaver, J. O., & White, E. T. (1971). Area handbook for Burma, foreign area studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF) (2002). Country profile: Myanmar. Available from http://www.ippf.org/regions/countries/mmr/index.htmGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khin Than Tin & Khin Saw Hla (1990). Causes of maternal deaths in affiliated teaching hospitals. Yangon: Myanmar Medical Association.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krasu, M. (1992). An Overview of Maternal Morbidity in Myanmar. Proceedings of a Seminar on Maternal Morbidity Obstetric and Gynecological Section. Yangon: Myanmar Medical Association.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leach, E. R. (1970). Political systems of Highland Burma: A study of Kachin social structure. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ministry of Health (2002, May 20–26). Ministry of Health Statistics. Unpublished report cited by Myanmar Times and Business Review, Health and Medicine Supplement, 6(115).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ministry of Health and United Nations Population Fund (1999). A reproductive health needs assessment in Myanmar. Yangon: Author.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Myanmar Times and Business Review (2002, May 20–26). Health and Medicine Supplement, 6(115).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    People’s Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma (The) (1999, October). Voice of the hungry nation. Asian Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sein Tu (2002, May 20–26). New attitudes to mental health care. Myanmar Times and Business Review, Health and Medicine Supplement, 6(115).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Skidmore, M. (1998). Flying through a skyful of lies: Survival strategies and the politics of fear in urban Burma (Myanmar) UMI, NQ50073. Doctoral dissertation, McGill University.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skidmore, M. (2002a, June). Menstrual madness: Women’s health and wellbeing in urban Burma (Myanmar). In A. Whittaker (Ed.), Women and health [Special ed.] 35(4), 85–104.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Skidmore, M. (2002b). “Behind bamboo fences”: Domestic violence against women and children in urban Burma (Myanmar). In L. Manderson & L. Bennett (Eds.), Women and violence in Asia (Chap. 5, pp. 90–106): Curzon Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Skidmore, M., & World Vision International (1997a). A rapid assessment study of maternal and child health in Mandalay, Myanmar. Yangon: World Vision.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skidmore, M., & World Vision International (1997b). A rapid assessment study of maternal and child health in Hlaingthayar, Myanmar. Yangon: World Vision International.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, M. (1996). Fatal silence: Freedom of expression and the right to health in Burma. London: Article 19.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) (2001). World drug report. Available from http://www.undcp.org/world_drug_report.htmlGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2000). UNICEF Statistics. Available from http://www.childinfo.orgGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Women’s Organizations from Burma and Women’s Affairs Department, NCGUB (WOB and NCGUB) (2000). Burma: The current state of women—conflict area specific. An unpublished shadow report to the 22nd Session of CEDAW.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    World Health Organization (1997). An assessment of the contraceptive mix in Myanmar. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    World Health Organization (2002). Country health profile: Myanmar. New Delhi, India: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monique Skidmore

There are no affiliations available