Video Gaming on Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

  • Nadjib Achir
  • Khaled Boussetta
Reference work entry


This chapter is devoted to video game support over wireless ad hoc networks. The main issue is to understand the real correlation between network conditions and players expected performance. Thus, we started this chapter by presenting an objective assessment methodology. The experimental results show clearly that from the player perspective the most important metric is the delay fairness and from the network perspective, the most important metric is the energy consumption. Considering that, we focus on the improvement of the gameplay fairness and energy efficiency, and we present two approaches. One first approach at the application level according to a new packetization technique and the second approach according to a multi-metric routing protocol based on energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Finally, we concentrate on the problem of game disconnection due to nodes mobility. We present a multipath OLSR-based routing protocol that computes two paths to reach the destination. In addition, the traffic generated by each node is balanced between the two paths according the quality of each path.


Video games First Pearson Shooters (FPS) Lag techniques Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) Mobility management Routing protocol Multipath routing protocol Multi-metric routing protocol 

Recommended Reading

  1. S. Aggarwal, H. Banavar, A. Khandelwal, S. Mukherjee, S. Rangarajan, Accuracy in dead-reckoning based distributed multiplayers games, in Proceedings of ACM NetGames, 2004Google Scholar
  2. S. Aggarwal, H. Banavar, S. Mukherjee, S. Rangarajan, Fairness in dead-reckoning based distributed multiplayer games, in Proceedings of ACM NetGames, 2005Google Scholar
  3. G. Armitage, An experimental estimation of latency sensitivity in multiplayer quake 3, in Proceedings of 11th IEEE International Conference on Networks/ICON 2003, 2003Google Scholar
  4. G. Armitage, L. Stewart, Limitations of using real-world, public servers to estimate jitter tolerance of first person shooter games, in Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, 2004Google Scholar
  5. H. Badis, A. Munaretto, K.A. Agha, G. Pujolle, Qos for ad hoc networking based on multiple metrics: bandwidth and delay, in Proceedings of the 5 t h IFIP-TC6 Internation Conference, 2003Google Scholar
  6. T. Beigbeder, R. Coughlan, C. Lusher, J. Plunkett, E. Agu, M. Claypool, The effects of loss and latency on user performance in unreal tournament 2003, in Proceedings of the 3 r d ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, 2004Google Scholar
  7. A. Benslimane, R.E. Khoury, R.E. Azouzi, S. Pierre, Energy poweraware routing in olsr protocol, in Mobile Computing and Wireless Communication International Conference (MCWC), 2006Google Scholar
  8. P.A. Branch, G.J. Armitage, Towards a general model of first person shooter game traffic, in CAIA Technical Report, 2005Google Scholar
  9. T. Clausen, P. Jacquet (eds.), Optimized link state routing protocol (olsr) (RFC Editor, 2003)Google Scholar
  10. A. Cricenti, P. Branch, Arma(1,1) modeling of quake 4 server to client game traffic. in Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support for Games (NetGames), 2007Google Scholar
  11. M. Dick, O. Wellnitz, L. Wolf, Analysis of factors affecting players’ performance and perception in multiplayer games, in Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, 2005Google Scholar
  12. T.P. Duncan, D. Gracanin, Algorithms and analyses: pre-reckoning algorithm for distributed virtual environments, in Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Winter Simulation: Driving Innovation, ser. WSC’03. Winter Simulation Conference, 2003, pp. 1086–1093. [Online]. Available:
  13. L.M. Feeney, An energy consumption model for performance analysis of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Mobile Netw. Appl. 6(3), 239–249 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. W. Feng, F. Chang, W. Feng, J. Walpole, Provisioning on-line games: a traffic analysis of a busy counter-strike server, in Technical Report, 2002Google Scholar
  15. IEEE standard for distributed interactive simulation – application protocols, IEEE Std 1278.1-1995, 2012, pp. 1–144Google Scholar
  16. IETF MANET WG (mobile ad hoc network). IETF, www.ietf.ora/html.charters/manet-charter.html
  17. T. Ikedo, Y. Ishibashi, An adaptive scheme for consistency among players in networked racing games, in Mobile Data Management, 2006. MDM 2006. 7th International Conference on, 2006, pp. 116–116Google Scholar
  18. Y. Ishibashi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Ikedo, S. Sugawara, Adaptive deltacausality control with adaptive dead-reckoning in networked games, in Proceedings of ACM NetGames, 2007Google Scholar
  19. P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, T. Clausen, A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks, in Proceedings of IEEE International Multitopic Conference (INMIC 2001), 2001Google Scholar
  20. D.R. Jefferson, Virtual time. ACM Trans. Progr. Lang. Syst. 7, 404–425 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. A. Kaiser, D. Maggiorini, N. Achir, K. Boussetta, On the objective evaluation of real-time networked games, in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2009. GLOBECOM 2009. IEEE, 2009a, pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  22. A. Kaiser, N. Achir, K. Boussetta, Multiplayer games over wireless ad hoc networks: energy and delay analysis, in International Workshop on Ubiquitous Multimedia Systems and Applications (UMSA), 2009bGoogle Scholar
  23. A. Kaiser, N. Achir, K. Boussetta, Improving energy efficiency and gameplay fairness for time sensitive multiplayers games in manet, in Energy Efficiency in Wireless Networks & Wireless Networks for Energy Efficiency Workshop (E2Nets), 2010Google Scholar
  24. A. Kaiser, N. Achir, K. Boussetta, A multipath traffic balancing proposal to reduce gaming disconnections in manet, in Wireless Days (WD), 2010 IFIP, 2010, pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  25. A. Kaiser, K. Boussetta, N. Achir, An energy-delay routing protocol for video games over multihops ad hoc networks, in Ad Hoc Networks, ed. by D. Simplot-Ryl, M. Dias de Amorim, S. Giordano, A. Helmy. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol. 89 (Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012), pp. 193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. A. Khan, T. Suzuki, M. Kobayashi, M. Morita, A multipath approach for fast re-routing in olsr,” in IEIC Technical Report, 2006Google Scholar
  27. T. Kunz, Energy-efficient variations of olsr, in Proceedings of the International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2008Google Scholar
  28. Y. Kusunose, Y. Ishibashi, N. Fukushima, S. Sugawara, Qoe assessment in networked air hockey game with haptic media, in Network and Systems Support for Games (NetGames), 2010 9th Annual Workshop on, 2010, pp. 1–2Google Scholar
  29. Y.-B. Lin, E.D. Lazowska, A study of time warp rollback mechanisms. ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 1(1), 51–72 (1991). [Online]. Available: Google Scholar
  30. S. Mahfoudh, P. Minet, An energy efficient routing based on olsr in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, in Advanced Information Networking and Applications – Workshops (AINAW), 2008Google Scholar
  31. M. Mauve, How to keep a dead man from shooting, in Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Interactive Distributed Multimedia Systems and Telecommunication Services (IDMS), 2000Google Scholar
  32. M. Mauve, J. Vogel, V. Hilt, W. Effelsberg, Local-lag and timewarp: providing consistency for replicated continuous applications. Multimedia IEEE Trans. 6(1), 47–57 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. A.N. Meraihi, P. Jacquet, Le côntrole du delai dans le protocole olsr, in Research Report, 2003Google Scholar
  34. P. Mohapatra, J. Li, C. Gui, Qos in mobile a hoc networks. Wirel. Commun. IEEE 10(3), 44–52 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. S. Mueller, R.P. Tsang, D. Ghosal, Multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks: issues and challenges, in Performance Tools and Applications to Networked Systems, volume 2965 of LNCS, 2004Google Scholar
  36. C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, Adhoc on-demand distance vector routing, in Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer Systems and Applications (WMCSA’99), 1999Google Scholar
  37. P. Quax, P. Monsieurs, W. Lamotte, D.D. Vleeschauwer, N. Degrande, Objective and subjective evaluation of the influence of small amounts of delay and jitter on a recent first person shooter game, in Proceedings of the 3 r d ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, 2004Google Scholar
  38. F.D. Rango, M. Fotino, S. Marano, Ee-olsr: energy efficient olsr routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks,” in Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), 2008Google Scholar
  39. T.B. Reddy, I. Karthigeyan, B.S. Manoj, C.S.R. Murthy, Quality of service provisioning in ad hoc wireless networks: a survey of issues and solutions, Ad Hoc Netw. 4(1), 83–124 (2006). [Online]. Available: Scholar
  40. N. Regatte, J. Sarangapani, Optimized energy-delay routing in ad hoc wireless networks, in Proceedings of World Wireless Conference, 2005Google Scholar
  41. L. Sanchez-Miquel, N. Vesselinova-Vassileva, F. Barcelo, P. Carbajo-Flores, Energy and delay-constrained routing in mobile ad hoc networks: an initial approach, in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN), 2005Google Scholar
  42. S.K. Singhal, D.R. Cheriton, Using a position history-based protocol for distributed object visualization, (Tech. Rep., Stanford, 1994)Google Scholar
  43. L. Wang, Y. Shu, M. Dong, L. Zhang, O.W.W. Yang, Adaptive multipath source routing in ad hoc networks, in IEEE ICC, 2001Google Scholar
  44. A.F. Wattimena, R.E. Kooij, J.M. van Vugt, O.K. Ahmed, Predicting the perceived quality of a first person shooter: the quake iv g-model, in Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Network and System Support for Games, 2006Google Scholar
  45. J. Yi, E. Cizeron, S. Hamma, B. Parrein, Simulation and performance analysis of mp-olsr for mobile ad hoc networks, in IEEE WCNC, 2008Google Scholar
  46. J. Yi, S. David, A. Adnane, B. Parrein, X. Lecourtier, Multipath olsr: simulation and testbed, in 5th OLSR Interop/Workshop, 2009Google Scholar
  47. S. Zander, I. Leeder, G. Armitage, Achieving fairness in multiplayer network games through automated latency balancing, in Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, ser. ACE’05. (ACM, New York, 2005), pp. 117–124. [Online]. Available: Scholar
  48. H. Zhu, M. Li, I. Chlamtac, B. Prabhakaran, A survey of quality of service in ieee 802.11 networks. Wirel. Commun. IEEE 11(4), 6–14 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.L2TI – Institut GaliléeUniversity Paris 13, Sorbone Paris CitéVilletaneuseFrance
  2. 2.Urbanet, CITI Insa Lyon / INRIA Grenoble Rhône-AlpesCITI labVilleurbanneFrance

Personalised recommendations