Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters

Teaching and Critically Reflective Practice in Freire

  • Leon Benade
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-532-7_107-1



Few of the many books written by Freire drew particular, and extended, attention to the teacher in the way Pedagogy of Freedom (1998) was able to do. While this entry draws on many other important works by Freire, it specifically probes elements of this book to place before readers some of the salient qualities and attributes Freire believed teachers, educators, and thinkers of education ought to aspire to.

There are four themes of relevance here. The first is Freire’s commitment to the idea of teaching as a political activity, particularly in the context of the contemporary neoliberal grind, which was widely evident across multiple nations by the time of his death in 1997. The second is that teaching could be, indeed should be, regarded as an ethical activity, and this entry explores that claim. It is an...


Critical Thinking Ethical Activity Reflective Practice Critical Consciousness Critical Pedagogy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Benade, L. (2012). From technicians to teachers: Ethical teaching in the context of globalized education reform. New York/London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  2. Duncan-Andrade, J. M. R., & Morrell, E. (2008). The art of critical pedagogy: Possibilities for moving from theory to practice in urban schools. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  3. Freire, P. (1970/1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed (trans: Ramos, M. B.). London: Penguin Books. Citations refer to the 1996 edition.Google Scholar
  4. Freire, P. (1976). Education, the practice of freedom (trans: Ramos, M. B.). London: Writers and Readers Collective.Google Scholar
  5. Freire, P. (1985). The politics of education: Culture, power and liberation. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Freire, P. (1996). Letters to Cristina: Reflections on my life and work (trans: Macedo, D., with Macedo, Q., & Oliveira, A.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy and civic courage. Lanham: Rowman and Little.Google Scholar
  8. Freire, P. (2005). Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to those who dare teach (trans: Macedo, D., Koike, D., & Oliveira, A.). Cambridge: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  9. Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (1987). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  10. Macedo, D. (2000). Introduction to the Anniversary Edition. In P. Freire (Ed.), Pedagogy of the oppressed (trans: Ramos, M. B.) (pp. 11–28). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  11. Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media Limited. Also available from http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum
  12. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2003). Definition and selection of competencies: Theoretical and conceptual foundations (DeSeCo): Executive summary. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/35070367.pdf
  13. Roberts, P. (2000). Education, literacy, and humanization: Exploring the work of Paulo Freire. Westport: Bergin and Garvey.Google Scholar
  14. Shor, I., & Freire, P. (1987). A pedagogy of liberation. London: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand