Ultrasonic Applications for Juice Making

Reference work entry


Nowadays, juice is one of the most popular beverages in food technology. Juice is easy to consume, delicious, and refreshing, and it is rich in vitamins, phytochemicals, and sometimes fiber, depending on the raw materials used. However, juice usually suffers from the loss of important nutrients and from compromised freshness and quality during thermal processing. Novel technologies for juice processing have therefore been developed to address the negative effects of thermal treatment. Among available technologies, ultrasound technology has a significant potential to produce good-quality, healthful, delicious, and affordable juice. At the same time, ultrasound technology is expressed to improve juice yield and extract some important compounds in the juice production. In recent years, many studies have been conducted on the effects of ultrasound technology on the shelf life, yield, bioactive components, natural color components, appearance, and rheological and physicochemical properties of juices. These studies have focused on efficient juice production using ultrasound technology alone or in combination with another technology. Along with pasteurization, ultrasound technology can be utilized as an important tool to develop and preserve the properties of juice. In this chapter, the possibilities and potential offered by ultrasound treatment to juice production technology are evaluated in light of recent studies.


Juice Ultrasound Pasteurization Application Quality 


  1. 1.
    Aadil RM, Zeng X-A, Zhang Z-H, Wang M-S, Han Z, Jing H, Jabba S (2015) Thermosonication: a potential technique that influences the quality of grapefruit juice. Int J Food Sci Technol 50:1275–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abid M, Jabbar S, Wu T, Hashim MM, Hu B, Lei S (2013) Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1182–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abid M, Jabbar S, Hu B, Hashim MM, Wu T, Lei S, Khan MA, Zeng X (2014) Thermosonication as a potential quality enhancement technique of apple juice. Ultrason Sonochem 21:984–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adekunte A, Tiwari BK, Cullen PJ, Scannel AGM, O’Donnel CP (2010) Effect of sonication on colour, ascorbic acid and yeast inactivation in tomato juice. Food Chem 122:500–507Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adekunte A, Tiwari B, Scannell A, Cullen P, O’donnell C (2010) Modelling of yeast inactivation in sonicated tomato juice. Int J Food Microbiol 137:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alighourci H, Barzegar M, Sahari MA, Abbasi S (2014) The effects of sonication and gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pomegranate juice. Iran J Microbiol 6:51–58Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arroyo C, Cebrián G, Pagán R, Condón S (2012) Synergistic combination of heat and ultrasonic waves under pressure for Cronobacter sakazakii inactivation in apple juice. Food Control 25:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Awad TS, Moharram HA, Shaltout OE, Asker D, Youssef MM (2012) Applications of ultrasound in analysis, processing and quality control of food. Food Res Int 48:410–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker RA, Cameron RG (1999) Clouds of citrus juices and juice drinks. Food Technol 53:64–69Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barba F, Esteve M, Frígola A (2012) High pressure treatment effect on physicochemical and nutritional properties of fluid foods during storage: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety 11:307–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barbosa-Canovas GV, Altunakar B (2007) Pulsed electric fields processing of foods: an overview. In: Raso J, Heinz V (eds) Pulsed electric fields for the Food Industry- Fundamentals and applications. Springer, pp 3-22Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barbosa-Canovas GV, Gongora-Nieto MM, Pothakamury UR, Swanson BG (1999) Fundamentals of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF). In: Preservation of foods with pulsed electric fields. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Başlar M, Ertugay M (2013) The effect of ultrasound and photosonication treatment on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, total phenolic component and color of apple juice. Int J Food Sci Technol 48:886–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baumann AR, Martin SE, Feng H (2005) Power ultrasound treatment of Listeria monocytogenes in apple cider. J Food Prot 68:2333–2340Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bayındırlı A, Alpas H, Bozoğlu F, Hızal M (2006) Efficiency of high pressure treatment on inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms and enzymes in apple, orange, apricot and sour cherry juices. Food Control 17:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bevilacqua A, Speranza B, Campaniello D, Sinigaglia M, Corbo MR (2014) Inctivation of spoling yeasts of fruit juices by pulsed ultrasound. Food Bioprocess Technol 7:2189–2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhat R, Kamaruddin NSBC, Min-Tze L, Karim AA (2011) Sonication improves kasturi lime (Citrus microcarpa) juice quality. Ultrason Sonochem 18:1295–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bintsis T, Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E, Robinson RK (2000) Existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light in the food industry – a critical review. J Sci Food Agric 80(6):637–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Char CD, Mitilinaki E, Guerrero SN, Alzamora SM (2010) Use of high-intensity ultrasound and UV-C light to inactivate some microorganisms in fruit juices. Food Bioprocess Technol 3(6):797–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Charles-Rodríguez A, Nevárez-Moorillón G, Zhang Q, Ortega-Rivas E (2007) Comparison of thermal processing and pulsed electric fields treatment in pasteurization of apple juice. Food Bioprod Process 85(C2):93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chemat F, Huma Z, Khan MK (2011) Applications of ultrasound in food technology: processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason Sonochem 18:813–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen Y, Yu LJ, Rupasinghe HPV (2013) Effect of thermal and non-thermal pasteurisation on the microbial inactivation and phenolic degradation in fruit juice: a mini-review. J Sci Food Agric 93:981–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheng LH, Soh CY, Liew SC, Teh FF (2007) Effects of sonication and carbonation on guava juice quality. Food Chem 104:1396–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cortes C, Torregrosa F, Esteve MJ, Frigola A (2006) Carotenoid profile modification during refrigerated storage in untreated and pasteurized orange juice and orange juice treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields. Agric Food Chem 54:6247–6254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Costa M, Fonteles T, Jesus A, Almeida F, Miranda M, Fernandes F, Rodrigues S (2013) High-intensity ultrasound processing of pineapple juice. Food Bioprocess Technol 6:997–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D’Amico DJ, Silk TM, Wu JR, Guo MR (2006) Inactivation of microorganisms in milk and apple cider treated with ultrasound. J Food Prot 69:556–563Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Damar S, Balaban MO (2011) Effects of dense phase CO2 on quality attributes of beverages. J Food Sci 347–358Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Demirdöven A, Baysal T (2008) The use of ultrasound and combined technologies in food preservation. Food Rev Int 25:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Altunakar B (2007) Food preservation by pulsed electric fields and selected antimicrobials. PhD thesis, Department of Biological Systems Engineering Washington State University Pulman, p 22Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Elez-Martinez P, Soliva-Fortuny RC, Martin-Belloso O (2006) Comparative study on shelf life of orange juice processed by high intensity pulsed electric fields or heat treatment. Eur Food Res Technol 222:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Entezari MH, Nazary SH, Khodaparast MHH (2004) The direct effect of ultrasound on the extraction of date syrup and its micro-organisms. Ultrason Sonochem 11:379–384Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ertugay MF, Başlar M (2014) The effect of ultrasonic treatments on cloudy quality-related quality parameters in apple juice. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 26:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Feng H, Yang W (2011) Ultrasonic processing. In: Zhang HQ, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Balasubramaniam VMB, Dunne CP, Farkas DF, Yuan JTC (eds) Nonthermal processing technologies for food. Blackwell Publishing, USAGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferrario M, Alzamora SM, Guerrero S (2015) Study of the inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in apple juice by pulsed light and ultrasound. Food Microbiol 46:635–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gabriel AA (2015) Combinations of selected physical and chemical hurdles to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple and orange juices. Food Control 50:722–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gómez-Díaz JJ, Santiesteban-López A, Palou E, López-Malo A (2011) Zygosaccharomyces bailii inactivation by means of UV light and low-frequency ultrasound treatments. J Food Prot 74:1751–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guerrero-Beltrán JA, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2011) Ultraviolet-C light processing of liquid food products. In: Zhang HQ, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Balasubramaniam VMB, Dunne CP, Farkas DF, Yuan JTC (eds) Nonthermal processing technologies for food. Blackwell, AmesGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guzel BH, Arroyo C, Condón S, Pagán R, Bayindirli A, Alpas H (2014) Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli by ultrasonic waves under pressure at nonlethal (manosonication) and lethal temperatures (manothermosonication) in acidic fruit juices. Food Bioprocess Technol 7(6):1701–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Heinz V, Buckow R (2009) Food preservation by high pressure. J Consum Protect Food Safety 5:73–81Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Heremans K (2002) High pressure bioscience and biotechnology: a century and a decade perspective. In: Hayashi R (ed) Trends in high pressure bioscience and biotechnology. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hertog MGL, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Fidanza F (1995) Flavonoid intake and longterm risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 155:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jabbar S, Abid M, Hu B, Hashim MM, Saeeduddin M, Lei S, Wu T, Zeng X (2014) Influence of sonication and high hydrostatic pressure on the quality of carrot juice. Int J Food Sci Technol 49:2449–2457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jiménez-Sánchez C, Lozano-Sánchez J, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2015) Review: alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 1: techniques and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. doi:10.1080/10408398.2013.867828Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khandpur P, Gogate PR (2015) Effect of novel ultrasound based processing on the nutrition quality of different fruit and vegetable juices. Ultrason Sonochem 27:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Knorr D, Zenker M, Heinz V, Lee D (2004) Applications and potential of ultrasonics in food processing. Trends Food Sci Technol 15(5):261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Knorr D, Heinz V, Buckow R (2006) High pressure application for food biopolymers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lako J, Trenerry V, Wahlqvist M, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Sotheeswaran S, Premier R (2007) Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. Food Chem 101:1727–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee HS, Coates GA (2003) Effect of thermal pasteurization on valencia orange juice color and pigments. LWT-Food Sci Technol 36:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lieu LN, Le VVM (2010) Application of ultrasound in grape mash treatment in juice processing. Ultrason Sonochem 17(1):273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu Y, Hu X, Zhao X, Zhang C (2011) Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from watermelon juice by high pressure carbon dioxide treatment. J Food Sci Technol 50:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marco DBF, Joseph V, John K (1997) Mechanisms of disease: antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med 337(6):408–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Martínez-Flores HE, Garnica-Romo MaG, Bermúdez-Aguirre D, Pokhrel PR, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2015) Physico-chemical parameters, bioactive compounds and microbial quality of thermo-sonicated carrot juice during storage. Food Chem 172:650–656Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mason TJ, Cordemans ED (1996) Ultrasonic intensification of chemical processing and related operations: a review. Trans Inst Chem Eng 74:511–516Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mason TJ, Paniwnyk L, Lorimer JP (1996) The use of ultrasound in food technology. Ultrason Sonochem 3(3):253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mason TJ, Riera E, Vercet A, Lopez-Buesa P (2005) Application of ultrasound. In: Sun DW (ed) Emerging technology for food processing. Elsevier Academic Press, LondraGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Noci F, Riener J, Walkling-Ribeiro M, Cronin DA, Morgan DJ, Lyng JG (2008) Ultraviolet irradiation and pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a hurdle strategy for the preservation of fresh apple juice. J Food Eng 85(1):141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nguyen TP, Le VVM (2012) Application of ultrasound to pineapple mash treatment in juice processing. Int Food Res J 19(2):547–552Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    O’Donnell CP, Tiwari BK, Bourke P, Cullen PJ (2010) Effect of ultrasonic processing on food enzymes of industrial importance. Trends Food Sci Technol 21(7):358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ohlsson T, Bengtsson N (2002) Minimal processing of foods with non-thermal methods. In: Ohlsson T, Bengtsson N (eds) Minimal processing technologies in the food industry. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, USGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ortega-Rivas E, Zárate-Rodríguez E, Barbosa-Cánovas G (1998) Apple juice pasteurization using ultrafiltration and pulsed electric fields. Food Bioprod Process 76:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Patil S (2010) Efficacy of ozone and ultrasound for microbial reduction in fruit juice. Doctoral thesis, Dublin Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Patil S, Bourke P, Kelly B, Frías JM, Cullen PJ (2009) The effects of acid adaptation on Escherichia coli inactivation using power ultrasound. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 10:486–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Patist A, Bates D (2008) Ultrasonic innovations in the food industry: from the laboratory to commercial production. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Perkins-Veazie P, Collins JK (2004) Flesh quality and lycopene stability of fresh-cut watermelon. Postharvest Biol Technol 31:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Qin BL, Pothakamury H, Vega H, Martin O, Barbosa-Canovas GV, Swanson BG (1995) Food pasteurization using high intensity pulsed electric fields. Food Technol 49(12):55–60Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Quass DW (1997) Pulsed electric field processing in the food industry. A status report on pulsed electric field. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto. CR- 109742, pp 23–35Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Raviyan P, Zhang Z, Feng H (2005) Ultrasonication for tomato pectinmethylesterase inactivation: effect of cavitation intensity and temperature on inactivation. J Food Eng 70:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rawson A, Tiwari BK, Patras A, Brunton N, Brennan C, Cullen PJ, O’Donnell C (2011) Effect of thermosonication on bioactive compounds in watermelon juice. Food Res Int 44:1168–1173. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rodrigo D, Cortes C, Clynen E, Schoofs L, Van Loey A, Hendrickx M (2006) Thermal and high-pressure stability of purified polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase from four different tomato processing varieties. Food Res Int 39:440–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rodrigues S, Andre F (2012) Thermal treatment effects in fruit juice. In: Advances in fruit processing technologies, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Hoboken, pp 366–377Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1997) Carotenoids and food preparation: the retention of provitamin a carotenoids in prepared, processed and store foods. OMNI, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Salleh-Mack SZ, Roberts JS (2007) Ultrasound pasteurization: the effects of temperature, soluble solids, organic acids and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Ultrason Sonochem 14:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Santhirasegaram V, Razali Z, Somasundram C (2013) Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1276–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Santhirasegaram V, Razali Z, Somasundram C (2015) Effects of sonication and ultraviolet-C treatment as a hurdle concept on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice. Food Sci Technol Int 21(3):232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fernández Garcia A, Butz P, Bognar A, Tauscher B (2011). Antioxidative capacity, nutrient content and sensory quality of orange juice and an orange-lemon-carrot juice product after high pressure treatment and storage in different packaging. Eur Food Res Technol 213(4–5):290–296Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zhang C, Trierweiler B, Li W, Butz P, Xu Y, Rüfer CE, Ma Y, Zhao X (2011). Comparison of thermal, ultraviolet-c, and high pressure treatments on quality parameters of watermelon juice. Food Chem 126:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Simpson MV, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Swanson BG (1995) Influence of PEF on the composition of apple juice. Internal report, Washington State University, Pullman, p 800Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Simunek M, Jambrak AR, Petrovic M, Juretic H, Major N, Herceg Z, Hruskar M, Vukusic T (2013) Aroma profile and sensory properties of ultrasound-treated apple juice and nectar. Food Technol Biotechnol 51(1):101–111Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sun J, Chu Y, Wu X, Liu R (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem 50(25):7449–7454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tao Y, Sun D (2015) Enhancement of food processes by ultrasound: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55:570–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Terefe NS, Gamage M, Vilkhu K, Simons L, Mawson R, Versteeg C (2009) The kinetics of inactivation of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase in tomato juice by thermosonication. Food Chem 117:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tiwari BK, Muthukumarappan K, O’Donnell CP, Cullen PJ (2008) Effects of sonication on the kinetics of orange juice quality parameters. J Agric Food Chem 56:2423–2428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tiwari BK, Muthukumarappan K, O’Donnell CP, Cullen PJ (2009) Inactivation kinetics of pectin methylesterase and cloud retention in sonicated orange juice. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 10:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tiwari BK, Muthukumarappan K, O’Donnell CP, Cullen PJ (2009) Effect of low temperature sonication on orange juice quality parameters using response surface methodology. Food Bioprocess Technol 2:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tiwari BK, O’Donnell CP, Cullen PJ (2009) Effect of non- thermal processing technologies on the anthocyanin content of fruit juices. Trends Food Sci Technol 20:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tiwari BK, O’Donnell C, Cullen P (2009) Effect of sonication on retention of anthocyanins in blackberry juice. J Food Eng 93:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tiwari BK, O’Donnell CP, Muthukumarappan K (2009) Effect of sonication on orange juice quality parameters during storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 44:586–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2000) Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies at
  89. 89.
    Ugarte-Romero E, Feng H, Martin SE, Cadwallader KR, Robinson SJ (2006) Inactivation of Escherichia coli with power ultrasound in apple cider. J Food Sci 71:102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Valdez-Fragoso A, Mujica-Paz H, Welti-Chanes J, Torres JA (2011) Reaction kinetics at high pressure and temperature: effects on milk flavor volatiles and on chemical compounds with nutritional and safety importance in several foods. Food Bioprocess Technol 4:986–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vercet A, Lopez P, Burgos J (1998) Free radical production by manothermosonitication. Ultrasonics 36:615–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vilkhu K, Mawson R, Simons L, Bates D (2008) Applications and opportunities for ultrasound assisted extraction in the food industry – a review. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Villamiel M, de Jong P (2000) Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus in trypticase soy broth and total bacteria in milk by continuous-flow ultrasonic treatment and conventional heating. J Food Eng 45:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Walkling-Ribeiro M, Noci F, Riener J, Cronin DA, Lyng JG, Morgan DJ (2009) The impact of thermosonication and pulsed electric fields on Staphylococcus aureus inactivation and selected quality parameters in orange juice. Food Bioprocess Technol 2:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wong E, Vaillant F, Pérez A (2010) Osmosonication of blackberry juice: impact on selected pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and main quality parameters. J Food Sci 75:468–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wu J, Gamage TV, Vilkhu KS, Simons LK, Mawson R (2008) Effect of thermosonication on quality improvement of tomato juice. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wu J, Lin L, Chau F-T (2001) Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells. Ultrason Sonochem 8(4):347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Adzahan N (2006) Effects of ultraviolet treatment on water soluble vitamin retention in aqueous model solutions and apple juice. PhD thesis, Department of Food Technology, Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zafra-Rojas QY, Cruz-Cansino N, Ramirez-Moreno E, Delgado-Olivares L, Villanueva-Sanchez J, Alanis-Garcia E (2013) Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1283–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D (2007) Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 51:675–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tran MTT, Farid M (2004) Ultraviolet treatment of orange juice. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 5(4):495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Munoz A, Palgan I, Noci F, Morgan DJ, Cronin DA, Whyte P, Lyng JG (2011) Combinations of high intensity light pulses and thermosonication for the inactivation of escherichia coli in orange juice. 28(6):1200–1204Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stahle-Hamatschek S (1989) Cloud composition and its effect on cloud stability in natural cloudy apple juices (in German). Flussiges Obst 56(9):543–548Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Altunakar B (2007) Pulsed electric fields processing of foods: an overview. In: Food preservation by pulsed electric fields and selected antimicrobials. p 22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringDepartment of Food Engineering, Yıldız Technical UniversityEsenler, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food EngineeringErzincan UniversityErzincanTurkey

Personalised recommendations