Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Tracey Wade

Pica and Rumination Disorder

  • Andrea S. Hartmann
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-087-2_40-1


Pica and rumination disorder have both been combined with the typical eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED), as well as avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as full syndromes into the “Feeding and Eating Disorders” section of the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Both are highly underrecognized disorders.

Pica is characterized by the consumption of substances that are considered nonfood and nonnutritive over at least 1 month in individuals older than 2 years and in whose social and cultural context the behavior is not normative. Substances might range widely (e.g., paper, hair, soil, chalk, paint, or clay), possibly based on age and availability. In addition to the wide range of potential substances, associated behavioral features might differ considerably. While some individuals display a compulsion to eat certain substances due to their taste or consistency, in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

Recent Literature Reviews

  1. Gutelius, M. F., Milican, F. K., Layman, E. M., Cohen, G. J., & Dublin, C. C. (1962). Nutritional studies of children with Pica. I Controlled study evalution nutritional status. Pediatrics, 29, 1012–1023.Google Scholar
  2. Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Hampton, C., & Bryant-Waugh, R. (2012). Pica and rumination disorder in DSM-5. Psychiatric Annals, 42, 426–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Nchito, M., Geissler, P. W., Mubila, L., Friis, H., & Olsen, A. (2004). Effects of iron and mutimicronutrient supplementation on geophagy: a two-by-two factorial study among Zambian schoolchildren in Lusaka. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98, 218–227.Google Scholar
  4. Tack, J., Blondeau, K., Boecxstaens, V., & Rommel, N. (2011). Review article: The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 33, 782–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Williams, D. E., & McAdams, D. (2012). Assessment, behavioral treatment, and prevention of pica: Clinical guidelines and recommendations for practitioners. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 2050–2057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Other References

  1. Delaney, C. B., Eddy, K. T., Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Murray, H. B., & Thomas, J. J. (2015). The prevalence of pica and rumination behavior among individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders and obesity. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48, 238–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Green, A. D., Alioto, A., Mousa, H., & Di Lorenzo, C. (2011). Severe pediatric rumination syndrome: Successful interdisciplinary inpatient management. Journal of Pediatric Gastronenterology and Nutrition, 52, 414–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Parry-Jones, B. (1994). Merycism or rumination disorder. A historical investigation and current assessment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 303–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Parry-Jones, W. L., & Parry-Jones, B. (1994). Implications of historical evidence for the classification of eating disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 287–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sharp, W. G., Jaquess, D. L., Morton, J. F., & Herzinger, C. V. (2010). Pediatric feeding disorders: A quantitative synthesis of treatment outcomes. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 348–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Young, S. (2011). Craving earth: Understanding pica – The urge to eat clay, starch, ice, and chalk. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Sciences, Institute of PsychologyOsnabrück UniversityOsnabrückGermany