Pica and Rumination Disorder
Pica and rumination disorder have both been combined with the typical eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED), as well as avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) as full syndromes into the “Feeding and Eating Disorders” section of the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Both are highly underrecognized disorders.
Pica is characterized by the consumption of substances that are considered nonfood and nonnutritive over at least 1 month in individuals older than 2 years and in whose social and cultural context the behavior is not normative. Substances might range widely (e.g., paper, hair, soil, chalk, paint, or clay), possibly based on age and availability. In addition to the wide range of potential substances, associated behavioral features might differ considerably. While some individuals display a compulsion to eat certain substances due to their taste or consistency, in...
References and Further Reading
Recent Literature Reviews
- Gutelius, M. F., Milican, F. K., Layman, E. M., Cohen, G. J., & Dublin, C. C. (1962). Nutritional studies of children with Pica. I Controlled study evalution nutritional status. Pediatrics, 29, 1012–1023.Google Scholar
- Nchito, M., Geissler, P. W., Mubila, L., Friis, H., & Olsen, A. (2004). Effects of iron and mutimicronutrient supplementation on geophagy: a two-by-two factorial study among Zambian schoolchildren in Lusaka. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98, 218–227.Google Scholar
- Delaney, C. B., Eddy, K. T., Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Murray, H. B., & Thomas, J. J. (2015). The prevalence of pica and rumination behavior among individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders and obesity. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48, 238–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young, S. (2011). Craving earth: Understanding pica – The urge to eat clay, starch, ice, and chalk. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar