Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Tracey Wade

The SCOFF Questionnaire

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-087-2_213-1


The SCOFF is a self-report questionnaire that was developed as a screening measure for eating disorders (Morgan et al. 1999). Five questions were developed that were intended to address the core features of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. These five questions were provided in the manuscript that first described the development of the SCOFF, thus the questionnaire is freely available to use. The acronym SCOFF relates to one of the words in each item, shown in bold in Table 1. Each of the questions is closed, so a yes or no response is all that is required. If there are two or more “yes” responses, then the person is considered to screen positive for a possible eating disorder, and further assessment is warranted.
Table 1

The SCOFF items and scoring system

Do you make yourself Sick because you feel uncomfortably full?

Do you worry you have lost Control over how much you eat?

Have you recently lost more than One stone in a 3-month period?

Do you believe yourself to...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Botella, J., Sepulveda, A. R., Huang, H., & Gambara, H. (2013). A meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of the SCOFF. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16, E92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Crosby, R. D., & Mitchell, J. E. (2000). The SCOFF questionnaire – A promising instrument, but more research is needed. Western Journal of Medicine, 172, 164–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hill, L. S., Reid, F., Morgan, J. F., & Lacey, H. J. (2010). SCOFF, the development of an eating disorder screening questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(4), 344–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Luck, A. J., Morgan, J. F., Reid, F., O’Brien, A., Brunton, J., Price, C., Perry, L., & Lacey, J. H. (2002). The SCOFF questionnaire and clinical interview for eating disorders in general practice: comparative study. British Medical Journal, 325(7367), 755–756.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Mond, J. M., Myers, T. C., Crosby, R. D., Hay, P. J., Rodgers, B., Morgan, J. F., Lacey, H., & Mitchell, J. E. (2008). Screening for eating disorders in primary care: EDE-Q versus SCOFF. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(5), 612–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Morgan, J. F., Reid, F., & Lacey, J. H. (1999). The SCOFF questionnaire: Assessment of a new screening tool for eating disorders. British Medical Journal, 319(7223), 1467–1468.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Perry, L., Morgan, J. F., Reid, F., Brunton, J., O’Brien, A., Luck, A., …, & Lacey, J. H. (2002). Screening for symptoms of eating disorders: Reliability of the SCOFF screening tool with written compared to oral delivery. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32, 466–472.Google Scholar
  8. Solmi, F., Hatch, S. L., Hotopf, M., Treasure, J., & Micali, N. (2015). Validation of the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorders in a multiethnic general population sample. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48(3), 312–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia