Encyclopedia of Geropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Nancy A. Pachana

Berlin Aging Studies (BASE and BASE-II)

  • Julia A. M. Delius
  • Sandra Düzel
  • Denis Gerstorf
  • Ulman Lindenberger
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-080-3_44-1



The Berlin Aging Studies (BASE and BASE-II) are two consecutive studies of old age and aging with an interdisciplinary focus. The disciplines involved include psychology, psychiatry, geriatrics and internal medicine, genetics, sociology, and economics. The initial BASE data collection involved 14 sessions and took place in 1990–1993 with 516 men and women aged 70 to over 100 years. BASE-II currently involves five sessions with 1,600 older adults aged 60–80 years as well as 600 younger adults aged 20–35 years, who were assessed for the first time in 2011–2014.

The initial Berlin Aging Study (BASE) was launched in 1989. In 1990–1993, 516 women and men aged 70 to 100+ years and living in the former West Berlin completed an intensive protocol of 14 sessions that exhaustively assessed their physical and mental health, life histories, living conditions, and psychological status. Subsequently, seven longitudinal follow-up...


Episodic Memory Fluid Intelligence Theoretical Orientation Future Time Perspective Differential Aging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access


  1. Baltes, P. B. (1968). Longitudinal and cross-sectional sequences in the study of age and generation effects. Human Development, 11, 145–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baltes, P. B., & Mayer, K. U. (Eds.). (2001). The Berlin Aging study: Aging from 70 to 100 (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49, 123–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertram, L., Böckenhoff, A., Demuth, I., Düzel, S., Eckardt, R., Li, S.-C., … Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. (2014). Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). International Journal of Epidemiology, 43, 703–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revisions to the adaptation theory of well-being. American Psychologist, 61, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Düzel, S., Voelkle, M. C., Düzel, E., Gerstorf, D., Drewelies, J., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., … Lindenberger, U. The Subjective Health Horizon Questionnaire (SHH-Q): Assessing the future time perspective for an engaged and exploratory lifestyle (Ms. under review).Google Scholar
  7. Gerstorf, D., Ram, N., Lindenberger, U., & Smith, J. (2013). Age and time-to-death trajectories of change in indicators of cognitive, sensory, physical, health, social, and self-related functions. Devlopmental Psychology, 49, 1805–1821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerstorf, D., Hülür, G., Drewelies, J., Eibich, P., Düzel, S., Demuth, I., … Lindenberger, U. (2015). Secular changes in late-life cognition and well-being: Towards a long bright future with a short brisk ending? Psychology and Aging, 30, 301–310.Google Scholar
  9. Ghisletta, P., Bäckman, L., Bertram, L., Brandmaier, A. M., Gerstorf, D., Liu, T., & Lindenberger, U. (2014). The Val/Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene predicts decline in perceptual speed in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 29, 384–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Headey, B., Muffels, R., & Wagner, G. G. (2010). Long-running German panel survey shows that personal and economic choices, not just genes, matter for happiness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 42, 17922–17926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hertzog, C., Kramer, A., Wilson, R., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: Can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 1–65.Google Scholar
  12. Hülür, G., Drewelies, J., Eibich, P., Düzel, S., Demuth, I., Ghisletta, P., … Gerstorf, D. (in press). Cohort differences in psychosocial function over 20 years: Current older adults feel less lonely and less dependent on external circumstances. Gerontology.Google Scholar
  13. Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: Future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Psychology and Aging, 5, 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindenberger, U. (2014). Human cognitive aging: Corriger la fortune? Science, 346(6209), 572–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lindenberger, U., Gilberg, R., Little, T. D., Nuthmann, R., Pötter, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2001). Sample selectivity and generalizability of the results of the Berlin Aging Study. In P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer (Eds.), The Berlin Aging study: Aging from 70 to 100 (pp. 56–82). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Lindenberger, U., Smith, J., Mayer, K. U., & Baltes, P. B. (Eds.). (2010). Die Berliner Altersstudie (3rd ed.). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Maass, A., Düzel, S., Goerke, M., Becke, A., Sobieray, U., Neumann, K., … Düzel, E. (2015). Vascular hippocampal plasticity after aerobic exercise in older adults. Molecular Psychiatry, 20, 585–593.Google Scholar
  18. Mayer, K. U., & Baltes, P. B. (Eds.). (1999). Die Berliner Altersstudie. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  19. McArdle, J. J. (2009). Latent variable modeling of differences and changes with longitudinal data. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 577–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Papenberg, G., Li, S.-C., Nagel, I. E., Nietfeld, W., Schjeide, B.-M., Schröder, J., … Bäckman, L. (2014). Dopamine and glutamate receptor genes interactively influence episodic memory in old age. Neurobiology of Aging, 35, 1213.e3–1213.e8.Google Scholar
  21. Schaie, K. W. (1965). A general model for the study of developmental problems. Psychological Bulletin, 64, 92–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmiedek, F., Lövdén, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2010). Hundred days of cognitive training enhance broad cognitive abilities in adulthood: Findings from the COGITO study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 27.Google Scholar
  23. Suzman, R. M., Willis, D. P., & Manton, K. G. (Eds.). (1992). The oldest old. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia A. M. Delius
    • 1
  • Sandra Düzel
    • 1
  • Denis Gerstorf
    • 2
  • Ulman Lindenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Lifespan PsychologyMax Planck Institute for Human DevelopmentBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of PsychologyHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany